Phospholipase D1 production of phosphatidic acid
at the plasma membrane promotes exocytosis of large dense-core granules at a late stage.
Previous studies have shown that soy-derived phosphatidic acid
(PA), lyso-PA, or phosphatidylserine (PS) can stimulate a robust increase in mTOR signaling; however, soy-derived PC was not effective .
Jesch et al., "Phospholipid metabolism regulated by a transcription factor sensing phosphatidic acid
," Science, vol.
Fujiwara et al., "Phospholipase D2-Dependent Inhibition of the Nuclear Hormone Receptor PPAR[gamma] by Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid
," Molecular Cell, vol.
Positive effects of soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine plus phosphatidic acid
on memory, cognition, daily functioning, and mood in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia.
Long-chain bases, phosphatidic acid
, MAPKs, and reactive oxygen species as nodal signal transducers in stress responses in Arabidopsis.
PLD hydrolyzes the distal phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids, leading to the formation of phosphatidic acid
(PA) and to the release of a soluble head group.
In MMTV-PpAR[delta] mice, PPAR[delta] functions as an integrator of metabolism and tumorigenesis via the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a metabolite that promotes mammary tumorigenesis [65, 66], and phosphatidic acid
(PA), a metabolite that directly activates mTOR  (Figure 1).
Wang, "Phospholipase D[alpha]1-derived phosphatidic acid
interacts with ABI1 phosphatase 2C and regulates abscisic acid signaling," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Liposomes made of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC)/egg-yolk phosphatidic acid
(PA) (2: 1 molar ratio) in TS buffer (control) or incubated at 37[degrees]C for 30 min with the inductors of nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements: chlorpromazine 3mM (CPZ), promazine 8mM (PZ), or manganese 5mM ([Mn.sup.2+]).
Then, 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) catalyzes the second acylation converting MAG-P in 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (phosphatidic acid
(PA-P)), which in turn is dephosphorylated to 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) by phosphatidic acid
phosphatase (PAP or lipin).
Langer, "Intramitochondrial transport of phosphatidic acid
in yeast by a lipid transfer protein," Science, vol.