Phosphotransferase


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Phosphotransferase

 

any of a subclass of transferase enzymes that catalyze the reaction for the transfer of a free or substituted phosphate in living cells. (Research on the mechanism involved in the enzyme-catalyzed transfer of phosphate groups has established that it is not the phosphate group

but rather the phosphoryl group

that is transferred; however, the expression “transfer of phosphate groups” is current in the literature.)

Phosphotransferases are classified according to the nature of the groups that accept (incorporate) the phosphate. Thus, there are alcoholic phosphotransferases (hexokinases, phosphohexokinases), carboxylic phosphotransferases (carbamate kinase, acetate kinase), nitrogenous phosphotransferases (creatine kinase, arginine kinase), and phosphoric phosphotransferases (adenylate kinase, pyrophosphokinase). Adenosine triphosphate figures in all the reactions for the transfer of phosphate. Phosphotransferases also include the enzymes that effect what is outwardly an intramolecular transfer of phosphate (phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglyceromutase); in addition, they include pyrophosphatases, numerous nucleotidyltransferases, and enzymes that transfer two phosphate groups from such donors as adenosine triphosphate to two different acceptors.

Phosphotransferases are found in the tissues of all living organisms. Their biological importance derives from their role in phosphorylation reactions, which provide cells with energy-rich compounds. More than 200 phosphotransferases are known.

V. V. ZUEVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Beside its hydrolytic action, the low Mr PTPases demonstrate phosphotransferase activity [9-11].
Drew, "Frequency of UL97 phosphotransferase mutations related to ganciclovir resistance in clinical cytomegalovirus isolates," Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.
Wang, "Cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system of Klebsiella pneumoniae and its importance in biofilm formation and virulence," Infection and Immunity, vol.
Aminoglycoside acetyl transferase AAC 3-IV and hygromycin B4-1 phosphotransferase (hphB) in bacteria isolated from human and animal sources.
Lobsters with ESD also show decreased expression in thoracic muscle of arginine kinase, a phosphotransferase involved in energy metabolism that could be indicative of an energetic drain in lobster muscle in diseased lobsters (Tarrant et al.
(2005), they immortalised cynomolgus monkey oviduct cells using pSV3-neoplasmid (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas VA, USA) that contains both large and small T-antigens of the early region of SV40, and the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene, which confers resistance to the antibiotic geneticin.
Large-scale purification and acute toxicity of hygromycin B phosphotransferase. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 22: 22-27.
The bactericidal actions of parabens can thus be interpreted as being due to irreversible damage to key enzymes, such as those of the phosphotransferase system (Ma and Marquis 1996).
(6) Both xylitol and fructose are brought into the cell by a fructose phosphotransferase system.
SMGs-Selectable marker genes; ABC-ATP-binding cassette; [MS.sub.0]- Murashige and Skoog Basal Media; BAP- Benzylaminopurine; TDZ-Thidiazuron; 2,4-D- 2,4- Dichloro acetic acid; AtWBC19-Arabidopsis thaliana white brown complex homologs; npt II- neomycin phosphotransferase II; GUS- [beta]-glucuronidase
For selection purposes pSRNG expresses neomycin phosphotransferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a single IRES-containing transcript controlled by the phosphoglycerokinase (PGK) promoter (13).
The molecular test accurately detects key genetic mutations by sequencing the CMV UL97 phosphotransferase gene and the CMV UL54 DNA polymerase gene.

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