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the therapeutic use of sunlight or optical radiation, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation; a branch of physical therapy. Luminous energy’s effect on man is determined by its intensity (strength of the source and distance to the irradiated surface), by the duration of irradiation, and by the penetration depth of electromagnetic waves. The penetration depth, which depends on the light-wave length, is greatest with infrared and visible rays and least with ultraviolet rays. Erythema, that is, redness of the skin, may appear a few minutes after irradiation, for example, by infrared rays, or two to eight hours after exposure to ultraviolet rays. The intensity of the skin reaction varies with such factors as age, the time of year and the sensitivity of the skin in different parts of the body to different kinds of rays. It can change with some pathological conditions and after the ingestion of certain medicinal substances. The irradiated area acquires a tan in three to four days.

Thermal and luminescent artificial light sources are used in phototherapy. Thermal sources include incandescent lamps that emit infrared and visible rays, general and local light baths, Minin lights, and infrared rays. The quantity and composition of the energy released by these sources depend on the temperature of the radiating body. Luminescent sources, in which radiation is achieved by electrical, chemical, and other processes, include mercury-vapor lamps, luminescent erythematous lamps, and arc bactericidal lamps.

Ultraviolet irradiation, both local and general, is used to compensate for an ultraviolet-radiation insufficiency and to increase resistance to various infections, for example, influenza. It is used as an analgesic and antiphlogistic in treating diseases of the joints, the peripheral nervous system (neuritis, neuralgia, radiculitis), the muscular system (myositis), and the respiratory system (bronchitis, pleurisy), as well as in treating skin diseases, gynecologic and metabolic disorders, and some forms of tuberculosis. Ultraviolet irradiation is used in pediatrics in preventing rickets and acute respiratory diseases, in increasing the body’s defensive mechanisms against rheumatic fever between attacks, and, together with antirheumatics, in treating rheumatic fever during its acute phase. Thermal procedures and visible and infrared rays are used as analgesics and resorption agents primarily in treating subacute and chronic inflammatory diseases, neuralgia, and muscular pains.

Phototherapy is contraindicated in treating the active form of tuberculosis, neoplasms, pronounced heart failure, the second and third stages of hypertension, acute exhaustion, increased thyroid function, renal disease and insufficiency, and photopathy (a diseased condition caused by light).


References in periodicals archive ?
Five hours after placement, the device self-activated and delivered photodynamic therapy for roughly 5 hours.
Comparative study between the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs.
Foley, "on the track to using [positive dyes in] photodynamic therapy," Cincotta recalls.
There's been some concern about the development of abnormal squamous epithelium [after] photodynamic therapy.
A typical short contact photodynamic therapy treatment begins with a light microdermabrasion.
The patient returns to the physician's office 14 to 18 hours later and, while wearing special protective goggles, exposes the affected area to the BLU-U(TM) Photodynamic Therapy Illuminator, a non-laser fluorescent light source.
The relationship with Corixa opens up opportunities for new applications of photodynamic therapy and, moreover, is an important first step in a number of initiatives aimed at strengthening our early-stage pipeline.
In European markets, these include lasers developed for photodynamic therapy and marketed by Laserscope, Coherent Medical Group and Diomed.
is a biopharmaceutical company that has been engaged primarily in the development and/or marketing of Levulan(R) Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for multiple medical indications, with its primary focus on dermatology.
Harvey Lui of the University of British Columbia said a Phase I study of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (also known as BPD-MA) as a treatment for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis prompted no serious adverse events, with some patients showing a significant decrease in total PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) score by the end of the nine-week trial.
R) (NASDAQ NMS:DUSA) announced today it has filed lawsuits against physicians in California, Florida, and Tennessee to prevent their continued use of versions of its Levulan(R) brand of aminolevulinic acid HCl (ALA) produced by compounding pharmacies, for use in the company's patented photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment for actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, acne and other dermatological conditions.
Proprietary Photodynamic Therapy BOPP Compound to be Studied in Brain Cancer