photolithography

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photolithography

Electronics a process used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, thin-film circuits, optical devices, and printed circuits in which a particular pattern is transferred from a photograph onto a substrate, producing a pattern that acts as a mask during an etching or diffusion process

Photolithography

 

(1) A special photographic process that uses high-resolution photoresists. The purpose of the process is to produce an aperture, or window, of a given configuration in the layer of a photoresist in order to permit access of an etching agent to a semiconductor plate coated with an oxide film and situated beneath the photoresist layer. The windows are formed upon exposure of the photoresist to ultraviolet radiation or an electron beam, as a result of which negative photoresists become insoluble and positive photoresists become soluble. One of the many uses of photolithography is to produce an ordered arrangement of hundreds of thousands of tiny holes in the aperture masks used in color television kinescopes.

(2) A photomechanical method for the production of a lithographic printing plate, in which the image from a negative is copied onto a light-sensitive film covering the surface of a lithographic stone or metal sheet. After developing, the copy is subjected to a chemical treatment that divides the surface into printing and blank spaces. Photolithography has been used only rarely in the 20th century.

photolithography

[¦fōd·ō·li′thäg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
Lithography in which photographically produced plates or masks are used.

photolithography

A lithographic technique used to transfer the design of circuit paths onto printed circuit boards as well as the circuit paths and electronic elements of a chip onto a wafer's surface.

A photomask is created with the design for each layer of the board or wafer (chip). The board or wafer is coated with a light-sensitive film (photoresist) that is hardened when exposed to light shining through the photomask. The board or wafer is then exposed to an acid bath (wet processing) or hot ions (dry processing), and the unhardened areas are etched away. See chip and printed circuit board.
References in periodicals archive ?
The problem with building photolithographically defined magnetic actuators is twofold, Allen said.
At present it is difficult to obtain large area, defect-free films and it is often difficult to pattern the films photolithographically without damaging the chemically sensitive Y[Ba.sub.2][Cu.sub.3][O.sub.7] films.
An ultra-fine array of lines are photolithographically deposited on a glass scale to create a three-dimensional grid.
The Affymetrix p53 chip is manufactured photolithographically and contains an array with 65 536 squares with sides that are 50 [micro]m each (Fig.
The PCR chamber and the CE chip are directly linked through a photolithographically fabricated channel filled with an hydroxyethylcellulose sieving matrix.
The photosensitive behavior allows the polyimides, which are widely used in electronics applications, to be patterned photolithographically. The first type of PSPI developed was a photosensitive polyamic ester (2), which crosslinks only in the precursor state.
The majority of guided-wave devices in LiNb[O.sub.3] are based on photolithographically defined waveguides produced by high temperature (^1050 [degrees] C) diffusion of predeposited thin films ([approximately] 1000 [angstrom]) of titanium metal into the substrate.[2] The diffusion process, which takes place over several hours in a controlled ambient, increases both [n.sub.e] and [n.sub.o].
In 1872 Liu Lu-fen [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED] (1827-79) made yet another facsimile and this was photolithographically reproduced by the Commercial Press in 1920 in the first series of the Ssu-pu ts'ung k'an.(22) All facsimiles except Liu's are now lost, but this and further text-historical analysis indicates that erroneous readings were introduced by the nineteenth-century copyists into what is now the SPTK edition that were not included in Huang P'ei-lieh's original copy.
For example, the next generation of semiconductor fabrication technology will use deep ultraviolet (248 nm) to photolithographically reproduce 0.18-[[micro]meter] structures.
A photolithographically defined and monolithically produced combination of both detector and receiver eliminates labor-intensive packaging steps.