photolithography


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photolithography

Electronics a process used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, thin-film circuits, optical devices, and printed circuits in which a particular pattern is transferred from a photograph onto a substrate, producing a pattern that acts as a mask during an etching or diffusion process

Photolithography

 

(1) A special photographic process that uses high-resolution photoresists. The purpose of the process is to produce an aperture, or window, of a given configuration in the layer of a photoresist in order to permit access of an etching agent to a semiconductor plate coated with an oxide film and situated beneath the photoresist layer. The windows are formed upon exposure of the photoresist to ultraviolet radiation or an electron beam, as a result of which negative photoresists become insoluble and positive photoresists become soluble. One of the many uses of photolithography is to produce an ordered arrangement of hundreds of thousands of tiny holes in the aperture masks used in color television kinescopes.

(2) A photomechanical method for the production of a lithographic printing plate, in which the image from a negative is copied onto a light-sensitive film covering the surface of a lithographic stone or metal sheet. After developing, the copy is subjected to a chemical treatment that divides the surface into printing and blank spaces. Photolithography has been used only rarely in the 20th century.

photolithography

[¦fōd·ō·li′thäg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
Lithography in which photographically produced plates or masks are used.

photolithography

A lithographic technique used to transfer the design of circuit paths onto printed circuit boards as well as the circuit paths and electronic elements of a chip onto a wafer's surface.

A photomask is created with the design for each layer of the board or wafer (chip). The board or wafer is coated with a light-sensitive film (photoresist) that is hardened when exposed to light shining through the photomask. The board or wafer is then exposed to an acid bath (wet processing) or hot ions (dry processing), and the unhardened areas are etched away. See chip and printed circuit board.
References in periodicals archive ?
"APAC is the fastest-growing region in the photolithography equipment market"
Complex methods, such as the stepper photolithography and deep reactive ion etching, also known as the Bosch process, have helped researchers achieve some of these goals.
The photolithography process can be optimized in term resolution, waveguide width and side walls and the defects.
A quartz photomask was placed on top of the film and was held tightly by applying vacuum using a homemade photolithography apparatus.
However, reliability concerns by the military led to the adoption of photolithography on copper-clad substrates as the industry standard.
By combining self-folding with photolithography, "you are able to transform this two-dimensional technology into three-dimensional technology," says David H.
The course focuses on preparation and characterization of materials, such as polymeric nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles, photolithography, micelles, emulsions and sol-gel processes.
The apparatus is easily handled by anyone, and enables nanometer-scale fabrication at low cost, which until now could only be done with expensive large apparatus using short wavelength light, such as vacuum ultraviolet light (for the photolithography method) and electron beams (for the electron beam lithography method).
Most nano-applications to date are considered top-down, particularly in microelectronics, photolithography, photonics, and optics.
Core technologies of electroforming, photolithography, and thin film sputtering are used to fabricate high density flex circuits with conductor line widths as small as 5 microns and 2D and 3D mechanical micro-miniature components with micron size features and sub-micron tolerances.
Tri-layers structure of ferromagnetic/organic/ferromagnetic devices has been made using thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, and photolithography techniques.
Currently a silicon wafer fabrication plant costs around $3.5 billion because of the expensive photolithography and etching equipment needed to create the minute pathways that carry electrons through each chip, equipment sitting in large, assiduously monitored and maintained clean rooms.