As routinely for RFCA, no phrenic nerve
stimulation was performed during ablation of right pulmonary veins.
(1,4) Acquiring an elevated hemidiaphragm may occur due to a phrenic nerve
injury from a previous trauma or post-surgery.
Sacrifice of the phrenic nerve
necessitated a postoperative consultation with a physiotherapist for breathing assistance.
Samples of muscle tissue, 1 mm in width, were collected from the vicinity of phrenic nerve
distal branching where axons ending and end-plate regions are more profusely concentrated.
Only one study had reported the innervated information that accessory phrenic nerve
contains a C5 segment; however, not much data was provided on the subclavius muscle with innervations information (Banneheka, 2008).
Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is typically a postinfectious phenomenon, is known to involve the phrenic nerve
, causing diaphragmatic paralysis in adults, but has not been described in neonates (8).
The carotid artery, internal jugular vein, the remainder of the SCM, lower cranial nerves, phrenic nerve
, and brachial plexus were successfully preserved.
Mechanical injuries may lead to cardiac dysrhythmias, Horner's syndrome, and phrenic nerve
The latter is also an acquired condition due to phrenic nerve
injury (paralysis or paresis).
Overall, it was found that cryoballoon ablation had a 10.3 times greater odds of postoperative phrenic nerve
injury at 12-month follow-up in comparison to radiofrequency ablation alone (OR = 10.3, CI = 3.09 to 34.6, [I.sup.2] = 0%, p = 0.0001) [5,6,14-16,18].
As this procedure also affects the phrenic nerve
, it was not performed on those with coexisting cardiac or respiratory disease.