phrenology

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phrenology,

study of the shape of the human skull in order to draw conclusions about particular character traits and mental faculties. The theory was developed about 1800 by the German physiologist Franz Joseph Gall and popularized in the United States by Orson Fowler and Lorenzo Fowler through their publication the Phrenological Almanac and other publications. Modern neurology and physical anthropology have refuted the theory and consider its use a form of quackery.

Phrenology

 

a false theory that certain mental abilities are localized in various sectors of the human brain and can be distinguished by palpating the skull. Phrenology was developed by the Austrian physician and anatomist F. Gall; it was especially popular in the first half of the 19th century, owing to its propagation by Gall’s student J. Spurzheim and his followers in Western Europe. Dozens of phrenological societies were founded in Europe in the 1830’s and 1840’s. Phrenological data were used to diagnose mental and character traits. The achievements of physiologists, for example, M. J. P. Flourens in France, showed the insubstantiality of phrenology, which nevertheless continued to arouse interest until the early 20th century.

In the 1870’s a number of scientists, including G. Fritsch and E. Hitzig of Germany, developed theories concerning the localization of mental functions in various zones of the cortex of the large hemispheres of the brain. Their theories were sometimes called the new phrenology.

M. G. IAROSHEVSKII

phrenology

(formerly) the branch of science concerned with localization of function in the human brain, esp determination of the strength of the faculties by the shape and size of the skull overlying the parts of the brain thought to be responsible for them
References in periodicals archive ?
influenced by eugenic and phrenological models of intellectual
Nearly a century later, advocates of deterministic skull measurement continued to tout its potential as a human resources tool, with a letter writer in The Phrenological Journal describing it as an efficiency tool on par with typewriters and telephones.
His popular phrenology lectures reached a wider popular audience in 1839 when the Phrenological Society of New York transcribed, collated, and reprinted his American lectures under the title Lectures on Phrenology, By George Combe, Esq.
Mill) and phrenological notions are merely "suggestive.
One popular late nineteenth century baby book, for example, included a phrenological chart--so that parents could read their baby's head bumps for revelations about character.
28) Leslie Atzmon, "Arthur Rackman's Phrenological Landscape: In-Betweens, Goblins, and Femme Fatales," Design Issues 18 (2002), p.
The building ("a classic Fowler's octagon", that is built according to phrenological dictates (ENGEL, 1987, p.
Arguments of this kind clearly aim to puncture phrenological truth.
Indeed, place this reversed skull (scaled down to the human magnitude) among a plate of men's skulls, and you would involuntarily confound it with them; and remarking the depressions on one part of its summit, in phrenological phrase you would say--This man had no self-esteem, and no veneration.
Phrenology had gained a foothold in America before Spurzheim's visit; in 1824, the journal of the Edinburgh, Scotland, phrenological society reported that phrenology "had been well received in medical, legal, and scientific circles of the United States" (Colbert, 1998, p.
The first phrenological society was founded in Edinburgh in 1820, and later there were many societies in Great Britain and America.