How to produce a chemical defense: structural elucidation and anatomical distribution of aplysioviolin and phycoerythrobilin
in the sea hare Aplysia californica.
It has been demonstrated that naturals products from marine algae such as phycoerythrobilin
, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and fucoxanthin which are accessory pigments have established antioxidant activities (46) thus, reasonably contributing to the overall synergistic antioxidant capacity in Padina gymnospora and the seagrasses.
This produces phycoerythrobilin (PEB) that is then methylated in the ink gland to form APV [6,7,9-13].
 suggest that methylation of phycoerythrobilin (PEB) to form aplysioviolin(APV) occurs in either or both the vesicle cells and granulate cells in the ink gland.
Coelho, "Defensive ink pigment processing and secretion in Aplysia californica: concentration and storage of phycoerythrobilin in the ink gland," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.
The compound's chemical precursor is phycoerythrobilin
, a mild-mannered photosynthesis pigment found in red algae.
The purple color of the secretion (aplysioviolin) is derived from pigments (phycoerythrobilin
) found in the sea hare diet of red algae (Rudiger, 1967; Chapman and Fox, 1969; MacColl et al., 1990).