Phylloquinone


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Related to Phylloquinone: blood clotting, vitamin K

Phylloquinone

 

(also vitamin K1; chemical name, 2-methyl-3-phytyl-l,4-naphthoquinone), an oil-soluble vitamin. Phylloquinone was first isolated in 1939, by P. Karrer. The vitamin is a light yellow, viscous liquid that is capable of fluorescence and is insoluble in water. Its structural formula is

Phylloquinone is synthesized in the green parts of plants and by microorganisms. In humans and other mammals, it is formed by intestinal microflora. Phylloquinone figures in the biosynthesis of certain blood-coagulation factors, namely prothrombin and factors VII, IX, and X. Like other oil-soluble vitamins, phylloquinone is a constituent of the lipids that form part of biological membranes.

A deficiency of phylloquinone in humans and animals usually derives not from an insufficiency of the vitamin in the food but rather from a disruption of the vitamin’s absorption by the walls of the intestine. The disruption can result either from disorders of the gallbladder and liver (obstructive jaundice, cirrhosis of the liver) or from overdoses of medicines that suppress intestinal microflora. Phylloquinone deficiency leads to hemorrhages and hemorrhagic diathesis, interferes with the metabolism of high-energy compounds, and lowers the activity of many enzymes. Anticoagulants of the coumarin and indandione types inhibit the biosynthesis of phylloquinone.

Phylloquinone is effective in treating those suffering from K1, hypovitaminosis. Vicasol, an analogue of vitamin K1 is used as an antihemorrhagic. In industry, phylloquinone is synthesized from 2-methyl-l,4-naphthoquinone and either phytol or isophytol.

REFERENCES

Lakin, K. M. Lekarstvennaia reguliatsiia svertyvaniia krovi. Moscow, 1971.
Berezovskii, V. M. Khimiia vitaminov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.
Matusis, I. I. Vitaminy i antivitaminy. Moscow, 1975.

R. P. EVSTIGNEEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
High phylloquinone intake (vitamin K1) does not seem associated with PAD risk.
Deuterium-labeled phylloquinone has tissue-specific conversion to menaquinone-4 among Fischer 344 male rats.
Assessment of phylloquinone status is useful in patients with obstructive liver disease, malabsorption due to celiac disease, or pancreatitis and in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition (11, 12).
The association between high phylloquinone intake and a healthful diet and lifestyle suggests that phylloquinone intake might indeed play an important role in cardiovascular research studies.
The current study's subjects underwent cognitive evaluation between 2006 and 2008, and blood samples collected at this time period were analyzed for phylloquinone and other factors.
In contrast to the seven positive Japanese studies, in a double-blind trial, 381 postmenopausal women received phylloquinone 1 mg/day, MK4 45 mg/day, or placebo for 12 months.
Dark green leafy vegetables, including kale, spinach, and broccoli, are brimming with phylloquinone.
Research: Investigators evaluated the association between dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2) and total and advanced prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Diurnal variation in total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin: influence of increased dietary phylloquinone.
Phylloquinone, the most common form of vitamin K, was the researchers' benchmark for vitamin K intake.
All mice in the study had the same amount of phylloquinone (vitamin K) in their diet.
No association was found between phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intake and cancer incidence.