phylloxera


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Related to phylloxera: Pierce's disease

phylloxera

(fĭlŏk`sĭrə), small, sap-eating, greenish insectinsect,
invertebrate animal of the class Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda. Like other arthropods, an insect has a hard outer covering, or exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed legs. Adult insects typically have wings and are the only flying invertebrates.
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 of the genus Phylloxera, closely related to the aphidaphid
or plant louse,
tiny, usually green, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insect injurious to vegetation. It is also called greenfly and blight. Aphids are mostly under 1-4 in. (6 mm) long.
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. Phylloxeras feed on leaves and roots, and many species produce galls on deciduous trees. Their life cycle is complex; one species is known to pass through 21 different stages. Most notorious of the group is the grape phylloxera, Phylloxera vitifoliae, native to E North America. The species has winged and wingless generations, the former causing galls on grape leaves and the latter feeding on the roots, causing nodules and eventually killing the vine. The grape phylloxera came close to destroying the wine industry of France after its accidental introduction in about 1860; grafting of susceptible European vines onto resistant North American root stock saved the European vineyards. Phylloxeras are classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Phylloxeridae.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Not only was there still a wealth of forgotten varieties that had not been grubbed up, but a dozen small vineyards were found where phylloxera had never taken hold, usually because the soil had been too sandy for it to survive.
The phylloxera epidemic, coupled with economic and political turmoil, sent many wine makers, both wealthy and of modest means, in search of new vineyard land.
Determined to protect whatever made their wines unique, the winemakers of Champagne insisted on the quality of their grapes, yet as the phylloxera aphid relentlessly destroyed the region's vines, the most promising solution threatened to undermine this distinction.
Cuttings of the grape, once popular in Bordeaux, were imported to Chile in the mid-1800s before it was wiped out in the Old World by phylloxera. For decades, Chilean vintners mistook their carmenere for merlot.
Phylloxera (Phylloxera vastatrix) is a small insect belonging to the aphid family in the order Homoptera that sucks the sap from the roots.
When an aphidlike insect known as the grape phylloxera louse punctures grapevine roots to suck nutritious juices, it creates a handy hole that grape disease organisms can enter.
The phylloxera crisis, which devastated French vineyards in the late nineteenth century and which now threatens California's production, provides a good example.
They wanted vines whose roots would be resistant to phylloxera. Phylloxera is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the roots of wine grapes, and has periodically devastated wine vineyards in both California and Europe in the last century.
This classification, of course, dates back to the phylloxera crisis in the mid-1800s, when panicked producers turned to both grape breeding and grafting to rescue the European wine industry.
Chile was unaffected by the Phylloxera epdidemic which devastated vineyards France.