Physiognomy

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physiognomy

[‚fiz·ē′äg·nə·mē]
(psychology)
The prediction of personality functioning from facial appearances and expression.

Physiognomy

 

in the science of antiquity and of certain later periods, the study of the direct connection between the outward appearance and character of a person or an animal.

Physiognomy is rooted in the ancient practice of incorporating experience of life into folklore and the lore of sorcerers, fortune tellers, and the like. Physiognomic observations became part of the cultures of the ancient East; in the classical era they were systematized in the same way as other scientific disciplines of the time. Proportions of the face and body, characteristic gestures and facial expressions, and types of posture, build, and carriage of the body were described and classified.

In antiquity physiognomy was associated with the theory of temperaments and with Hippocrates’ theory of the dependence of an individual’s or a people’s physical and mental makeup on climate. Physiognomy was also related to the system of moral types (“characters”) worked out by Theophrastus and other students of Aristotle and to the use of types in classical literature, as exemplified by the character masks in New Comedy and the techniques of verbal portraiture in classical rhetoric, historiography, and biography.

Physiognomy was based on the notion prevalent in antiquity that the actions and behavior of every person are rigidly determined by his inborn character. According to Heraclitus, a person’s character was his “demon,” that is, his fate; similar statements were made by Epicharmus, Democritus, and Plato. It was believed that every person’s association with a moral type was just as clear and obvious, just as tangible and biological, as his physical features.

The classical tradition of physiognomy was reflected in the culture of Byzantium and of medieval Western Europe; it had a particularly strong influence on Arab science and on the cabala of Jewish mysticism. Some Western European scientists, for example, G. della Porta in De humana physiognomonia (1586), resumed the study of physiognomy between the 16th and 18th centuries. However, the establishment of new scientific criteria in the 17th and 18th centuries relegated physiognomy to the realms of common sense and artistic intuition. In his Physiognomical Fragments (1775–78), J. K. Lavater failed in an attempt to restore physiognomy to the status of a science. Similar attempts by such epigones of German romanticism as R. Kassner and L. Klages also failed to achieve acceptance. Klages’ graphology and characterology may be mentioned in this connection.

REFERENCES

Scriptores physiognomonici graeci et latini, vols. 1–2. Edited by R. Foerster. Leipzig, 1893.
Evans, E. C. Physiognomies in the Ancient World. Philadelphia, 1969.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

References in periodicals archive ?
It is a pioneer, occurring in disturbed habitats, forest edges, along roadsides and across several physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado.
In order to determine statistically significant differences in architectural parameters among physiognomies, we used one-way ANOVAs when data met those assumptions (errors normally distributed and homocedasticity).
Courtine, "Corps, regard, discours: Typologies et classifications dans les physiognomies de l'age classique," Langue Francaise 74 (1987): 108-28; Jocelyn Powell, "Making Faces: Character and Physiognomy in L'Ecole des Femmes and L'Avare," Seventeenth-Century French Studies 9 (1987): 94-112; and Helene Lotthe, "Eloquence et peinture dans la Rome pontificale: Agostino Mascardi, reformateur chretien de la physionomie," Dix-Septieme Siecle 159 (avril-juin, 1988).
In these most public works--canvases for the royal and imperial courts of his own day or for industrialists, wood engravings for multivolume popular histories--Menzel dreamed an airless world of automatonlike courtiers, treacherous physiognomies, periwigs and tricorn hats, and gargantuan crystal chandeliers.
In the newest paintings, the gestures, which have come into their own as physiognomies, seem to actually constitute the grid.
You even see the same physiognomies that you associate with types back then.
The shadowy outlines comprising and surrounding these figures--as well as the multiplicity of features--serve to depersonalize them, making their particular physiognomies difficult to determine, leaving them hovering in some zone of anonymity.