age

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Related to physiological age: psychological age

age

1. 
a. a period of history marked by some feature or characteristic; era
b. (capital when part of a name): the Middle Ages; the Space Age
2. Geology palaeontol
a. a period of the earth's history distinguished by special characteristics
b. the period during which a stage of rock strata is formed; a subdivision of an epoch
3. Myth any of the successive periods in the legendary history of man, which were, according to Hesiod, the golden, silver, bronze, heroic, and iron ages
4. Psychol the level in years that a person has reached in any area of development, such as mental or emotional, compared with the normal level for his chronological age
5. of age adult and legally responsible for one's actions (usually at 18 or, formerly, 21 years)

Age

 

in humans, a stage of development that is characterized by specific regularities of formation of the organism and personality and by relatively stable morphophysiological and psychological traits. While age is a stage in the biological maturing of the organism, a process controlled by genetic factors, it is also a concrete result and stage of the social-psychological development of the personality and is determined by the conditions of life, training, and upbringing.

The content and form of training and upbringing are historically composed and varied according to age; in their turn they affect the determination of the boundaries and possibilities of a given age. In contemporary pedagogy and developmental psychology, several ages are differentiated with respect to the known relationships of the boundaries: infancy (from birth to one year); pre-preschool, or early childhood (from one to three); preschool (from three to seven); early school age (from seven to ten years); juvenile, or middle school (from ten to 15); and late school, or early youth (15 to 18 years old). Beyond these limits there is no generally accepted classification in the literature; only old age is considered separately. With the increased longevity noted in the 20th century, gerontology and gerontopsychology have arisen as disciplines to study the problems of prolonging the active life of a human being. Each age has a characteristic structure of cognitive, emotional, and volitional properties and qualities; forms of behavior; types of relationships to the environment; and peculiarities of structure and functioning of various organs and systems of the organism. This structure, however, is not invariable: in the 20th century a general acceleration of the physical and mental development of children has been noted. On the other hand, educational theory, in solving the problem of optimizing training, widens the possibilities of age and the boundaries of acquiring knowledge. Training must take into account not only the level of development achieved but also the development perspectives (the concept of “zones of imminent development,” as formulated by L. S. Vygotskii): the teacher must know not only what is present in a child of a given age but also what can be achieved, given certain conditions, by the child in the near future.

A. V. PETROVSKII

age

[āj]
(biology)
Period of time from origin or birth to a later time designated or understood; length of existence.
(geology)
Any one of the named epochs in the history of the earth marked by specific phases of physical conditions or organic evolution, such as the Age of Mammals.
One of the smaller subdivisions of the epoch as geologic time, corresponding to the stage or the formation, such as the Lockport Age in the Niagara Epoch.

AGE

(aerospace engineering)
References in periodicals archive ?
Krijthe (1962) and Van Ittersum (1992) already demonstrated that both mother tuber and sprout age affect the physiological age of a seed tuber.
An overview of the different stages of physiological age and their consequences for crop performance is provided by Ewing and Struik (1992) and Struik and Wiersema (1999).
It has been stressed by many authors that both for scientific and practical purpose a good indicator of dormancy and/or physiological age would be useful.
Knowing your physiological age is good motivation to increase your exercise performance, which could translate into improved survival, said Dr Harb.
If the accumulation of day-degrees is associated with the degree of tuber maturity, the greater aTS accelerates physiological age and, as a result, tubers may sprout earlier.
BEUKEMA & VAN DER ZAAG (1990) attributed the decrease in tuber dormancy to increasing photoperiod and temperature conditions at the end of the spring crop season, which speeds up the physiological age and sprouting of tubers, reducing the storage time (BISOGNIN et al., 2008a).
A 50% reduction in the period of tuber storage until sprouting was reported only for the effect of crop season (BISOGNIN et al., 2008a) and it was recommended that tuber seeds produced in the fall be stored at 12[degrees]C whereas those produced in the spring should be stored at 8 or 4[degrees]C, due to these differences in physiological age. Low storage temperatures (<10[degrees]C) favor dormancy and reduce apical dominance in tubers, while high temperatures (>25[degrees]C) accelerate sprouting but do not favor breaking of apical dominance (BISOGNIN et al., 2008a; MULLER et al., 2010).
If, however, we had a method for quantitative determination of physiological age, we could make frequent measurements and determine whether taking vitamin E, exercising, eating vegetables, and so on, had a favorable or unfavorable effect on our own personal age-specific mortality.
We worked out all of the necessary analytical procedures and mathematics, published 20 research papers, and demonstrated that we could see many useful patterns and could measure physiological age quantitatively.
For example, about 30 percent of the substances in urine are correlated with physiological age. Some go up with age.
Differences in the physiological age of tubers may be responsible for the so-called "Northern Vigor" phenomenon (Anon., 2003; Blade et al., 2004), wherein seed produced in more northerly latitudes is purported to be more productive than that produced in more southerly latitudes (Wahab et al., 1990; Waterer, 1991; Wahab, 1993).
Then if we can do this, how do we manipulate either physiological age (before planting) or agronomic management (after planting) so that tuber set and size development can be controlled within an optimum range for a particular market?

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