dependence

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Related to physiological dependence: psychological dependence

dependence

[di′pen·dəns]
(medicine)
Habituation to, abuse of, or addiction to a substance.
(statistics)
The existence of a relationship between frequencies obtained from two parts of an experiment which does not arise from the direct influence of the result of the first part on the chances of the second part but indirectly from the fact that both parts are subject to influences from a common outside factor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Most importantly, all major repeaters displayed tolerance symptoms (Criterion 1), and there were very significant ORs for physiological dependence on SB, 66.7 (CI 7.1-625.2) and total dependence on SB, 62.9 (6.4-615).
Using a robust behavioral model of physiological dependence, Buck and colleagues (1997) identified a QTL on chromosome 4 that accounts for up to 26 percent of the genetic variance in withdrawal-associated convulsions following acute and chronic ethanol exposure in mice.
Within addiction science, questions about which substances or activities are able to cause genuine physiological dependence have been sidelined by the rise of a neuroscientific paradigm that emphasizes brain chemistry rather than the specific properties of different drugs (Volkow & Li, 2004).
In fact, Apt and Hulbert (1995) asserted that "a true addiction involves a physiological dependence on a particular substance that results from the habitual use of that substance.
Apart from the physiological dependence on nicotine, there is also a significant psychological dependence that must be addressed in order to achieve a successful and sustained outcome to smoking cessation.
Neuroadaptive changes that result from continued alcohol use and abuse (which manifest as tolerance and physiological dependence) are thought to be crucial in the transition from controlled alcohol use to more frequent and excessive, uncontrollable drinking (Koob and Le Moal 2008).
Then the writer can choose between saying that Winn fails to mention physiological dependence and saying that Winn leaves this matter too vague (for Winn does talk about dependency, though without distinguishing between physiological dependence and what we some will call 'psychological dependence,' whatever that phrase might mean).
Research has shown that excessive intake of caffeine produces psychological and physiological dependence.

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