Precise statistical analysis showed strong correlation of pial
invasion ([chi square]=14.43; p=3.84), dural invasion ([chi square]=13.48; p=3.84) and bone infiltration ([chi square]=14.24; p=3.84) with tumor margins.
In all pediatric and young adult patients, with clinical presentation of seizures, headaches, developmental delay or mental retardation and pial
angiomatosis and cortical calcifications confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, type III Sturge-Weber syndrome should be considered.
Salvinorin A preserved cerebral pial
artery autoregulation after cerebral cortex ischemia
Wang, "Vasodynamics of pial
and penetrating arterioles in relation to arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis after focal stroke," Neurophotonics, vol.
Cortical thickness was measured as the difference between the position of equivalent vertices in the pial
and GM/WM surfaces, by utilizing both intensity and continuity information from the entire 3-dimensional MR volume in the segmentation and deformation procedures.
The white surface and the pial
surface are generated for each hemisphere using encoding the shape of the corpus callosum and pons in the Talairach space and following the intensity gradients from the white matter.
In eloquent areas the surgeon uses a subpial dissection technique, where the pial
bank is preserved against blood vessels and nerves, while the grey matter is dissected out and away from the white matter tracts, often using an ultrasonic aspirating device on very low suction and fractionation settings.
Then, focal ischemia was induced by stereotaxic microinjection of 1 [micro]L (40 pmol) endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, into the left motor cortex (2.3 mm lateral and 1.2 mm posterior from bregma and 0.4 mm below the pial
More specifically, the ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve innervates dural and pial
blood vessel nociceptors that, when activated, cause a release of vasoactive neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and neurokinin A which in turn cause increased cerebral blood flow, release of proinflammatory factors, and a reaction called neurogenic inflammation .