Once the test board was submerged under water, the board's leakage current was measured using a Keithley 6487 Picoammeter
over a period of 60 min.
Electrical measurements were carried out using Keithley 6487 picoammeter
(Keithley Instruments Inc., USA).
A grid located at the exit of the mass filter (Faraday cup) can be used to measure the ion flux of the selected mass/size, and the resultant current is measured by a picoammeter
. Therefore, the current signal reflects the population/number of the produced nanoclusters.
Ion current registration system consisted of a secondary electron multiplier R595 (Hamamatsu, Japan) and a picoammeter
6485 (Keithley, USA).
The I-V characteristics data were recorded at different temperatures in the range of 306-373 K using Keithley 230 programmable voltage source and Keithley 6485 picoammeter
. The temperature was varied in room atmosphere to allow observation of device natural operational conditions.
Oxygen concentrations were measured using a Clark-style [O.sub.2] microelectrode (50-m tip; Unisense, Aarhus, Denmark) connected to a picoammeter
A DMM can make current measurements down to 10 nA or so, but you need a picoammeter
to go lower.
The electrical resistance (R) was carried out using a Keithley 6485 Picoammeter
. The samples were placed between parallel plates and attached to the instrument.
Electrical sheet resistance ([R.sub.s]) of the samples was determined by a two-point method using KEITHLEY 487 picoammeter
. For this measurement, additional Au contacts, about 50 nm thick, were created by sputtering.
The dark current [I.sub.d] and the photocurrent [I.sub.ph] were measured with a picoammeter
(Keithley 485) at a constant voltage.
A stabilized voltage of 1.5 V was applied across the sample, and the resultant current was measured with a picoammeter
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