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Related to pidgin: Pidgin English


(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
We identify also in this paper the problem of intergenerational language transmission arising from parental and community attitude toward using the mother tongue as the primary means of communication; Government policies and institutional attitude toward promoting English language and only the so-called three major Nigerian languages (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa) at the expense of other minority languages like Etsako; challenge of movement of Etsako language from oral to written and lack of documents or books written in the mother tongue; neglect of Etsako oral literatures encoded in folk tales, proverbs and indigenous songs; problem of Nigeria pidgin English; and the effect of globalization.
These are just about the only major significant qualities this English variant shares with Pidgin English.
This complex situation inevitably tolerates influences from Nigerian languages (as with the case of discourse particles and reduplication) and Nigerian Pidgin (as with the case of Pidgin-influenced structures).
33), while Pidgin Gulf Arabic is seen as the culprit in depriving many Gulf children of their heritage of speaking Arabic properly (p.
Goodman, 1978) readers used culturally relevant materials with second language Samoans and Hawaiian pidgin (HCE) speakers in Hawai'i.
Most parents will be instantly familiar with the strange form of pidgin English demonstrated by Birmingham schoolchildren who were asked to write about their favourite books.
They have proposed a pidgin origin of Swahili, an opinion that presently stands out in isolation.
At our Writing Center at the University of Hawai'i, there are remarkably few Hawai'i Creole or Pidgin speaking visitors, whereas more than half of our clientele are non-native speakers from Asian countries.
Apart from our 2003 NFLRC Summer Institutes, the NFLRC is pleased to co-sponsor the 2003 Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics Summer Conference (August 14-17, 2003).
Artists featured on this collection include the legendary Black Beats Highlife Dance Band (whose horn-heavy "Tsutsu Tsosemo" is one of this collection's most attractive cuts) and the Beach Scorpions Guitar Band (whose "Friends Today, Enemies Tomorrow" is performed in pidgin English and features some of the loveliest guitar playing on the album).
After a meal of chicken and fries, I asked the waiter, in my pidgin Arabic, "Where is the disco?