pidgin


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Related to pidgin: Pidgin English

pidgin

(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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.

Bibliography

See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Nigeria pidgin English, which is popularly known as "broken English", is the most commonly spoken language in all the ethno linguistic communities of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria.
La caracteristica mas destacable que distingue las lenguas pidgin de las criollas es que un criollo es el idioma nativo de una comunidad (cf.
En cuanto al pidgin y el criollo, pueden definirse conjuntamente, pues son dos sistemas teoricamente no muy distantes.
Charles referred to his Pidgin name "ambawan pikinini bilong misis kwin" - the number one child belonging to Mrs Queen - to cheers and applause.
GRINS AND 3 GARLANDS Tribal dancers bring smiles to Kate and Will's faces on the airport's landing strip BIG HIT J Crowds surround white truck - transformed into a war canoe - for a peek at the royal couple SHIRTS J Governor Frank Kabui greets William GOOD SIGN J Welcome in local pidgin TRANSFORMED J Truck became war canoe JOLLYJ Couple enjoy welcome IN THE JPINK Kate chose to wear this pink strapless dress - a gift from islanders - instead of her gown to banquet
Camacho Souza (1982: 14), describing the language situation for these first generation immigrants and their children, states: "The first generation spoke Spanish, then Pidgin English and some Hawaiian.
Two of Ghana's biggest hip-hop stars have teamed up for the world's first pidgin English musical, a fast-paced odyssey into the daily lives of two up-and-coming rappers.
I look forward in the next few years to reading what the most perceptive and learned have written about this, but meanwhile I'll offer some conjectures: Music appears to be like a pidgin language that has been created mainly by adults in the same way they acquire a foreign language--with difficulty and with a biological cap on fluency.
Can Akua Djanie ("The case for Pidgin English", NA, Oct) not see beyond the borders of her adopted country?
The service will be available countrywide in English, Hausa and Pidgin English.
The solution will be available countrywide in Nigeria in three languages - English, Hausa and Pidgin English.
FACT and Pidgin Productions are launching the award in honour of Ashan Kumar Burman at an event on Monday as part of the city's Black History Month.