pidgin

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pidgin

(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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.

Bibliography

See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
1977): <<English/Italian secondary hybridization: A case study of the pidginization of a second language learner's speech>>.
While the rhythm and rhymes of monosyllabic words may be a playful mockery of pidginization of Chinese, producing a music similar to that of Cantonese, a dialect spoken by immigrants from Canton and Hong Kong, the meanings of the words do not correspond to either the ethnic identity or racial stereotypes the sound might evoke.
In their general pursuit to trace function-form mapping throughout a variety of bilingual phenomena, the authors quote many convincing examples thereof, for example, in the development of pidginization, language shift, and language planning.
The individual papers that follow address a wide range of topics, from grammaticalization of syntax into morphology, and morphologization of phonology, through analogical change, remotivation and reinterpretation, lexicalization and demotivation, and changes in productivity, to borrowing and caique formation, pidginization, creolization, and language death, and reconstruction.
Examples like dame una quebrada are often used by sociolinguists to document all sorts of language mixing and sometimes to express la voz de alarma over the imminent apocalyptic pidginization of Spanish in English-language contact areas.
This would presuppose that, in the contact situation between the Northumbrians, Mercians and the Viking settlers, Old English and Old Norse were so different as to require first pidginization and then creolization in order to enable efficient communication.
Considering the development of the modern dialects from the more original types spoken in the Arabic peninsula, Jastrow affirms that he does not accept the pidginization hypothesis developed by Cornelis (Kees) H.
1997, Directionality in Pidginization and Creolization : 91-109, in A.
In "'Make Like Seem Heep Injin': Pidginization in the Southwest," Elizabeth Brandt and Christopher MacCrate examined the influence of Black, Chinese, Mexican, and Anglo presence on Southwest Indians' development of American Indian pidgin English.
Hence Creole is an advanced stage of pidginization whereby the non native speakers have become native.
Pidginization and Creolization: The Case of Arabic (1984), History of Arabic Grammar (1986), Arabic Grammar and Qur'anic Exegesis in Early Islam (1993), The Arabic Linguistic Tradition (1997), and The Arabic Language (1997).