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pidgin (pĭjˈən), a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

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References in periodicals archive ?
(105) Dell Hymes, "Introduction," in Dell Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), 73; R.
Holm (Eds.), Atlantic meets Pacific: A global view of pidginization and creolization.(pp.183-203).
(9.) These are the main contributors to the aspects listed: Diane Larsen-Freeman and Michael Long, eds., An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research (New York: Longman, 1991); Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert, Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning (Rowley MA: Newbury House, 1972); John Schumann, "The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition," in The Pidginization Process: A Model for Second Language Acquisition, ed., Rosario Gringas (Rowley MAS: NEWBURY HOUSE, 1978); JOHN SCHUMANN, "RESEARCH ON THE ACCULTURATION MODEL FOR SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION," JOURNAL OF MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT 7 (1986): 379-92.
(7) In his discussion of the same poem, Yunte Huang notes that Perloff's reading overlooks Yau's "play with pidginization." He contends that "Sound and spelling approximations between grab and grub, sum and some, sum and sub ...
I interpret Pidgin English as representing the language of the inter-modernist landscape from which political artists launch their campaigns of decolonization, announcing their distinctiveness from Western-derived notions of Nigerianess even as they highlight the cultural and ethnic diversity that defines "Nigeria." The deliberate "pidginization" of Western languages and conventions of representation by politicized African cultural practices like Fela's music or indeed the "home movies," may be understood in this context.
The next chapters ('Societal and Psychological Aspects of Bilingualism', 'Social Psychological Aspects: Intercultural Communication and Societal Bilingualism') treat phenomena such as acculturation, enculturation, code selection, switching, mixing and speech modification for foreigners, diglossia, language shift, and pidginization.
Schumann, Second Language Acquisition: The Pidginization Hypothesis, in SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A BOOK OF READINGS 256, 256-71 (Evelyn Marcussen Hatch ed., 1978).
They speculate that first there was an early "pidginization" phase involving some type of makeshift jargon used purposely to facilitate intergroup communication during trade.
"Discourse 6" is a wry performance of and reflection upon "creolization" and "pidginization":