A pie chart is most accurate when all available data or possible outcomes are included.

Of course, a pie chart is not necessary in most scientific papers.

6, transform this figure from a pie chart to a bar/column graph.

Panel B in Exhibit 2 is a graphic demonstrating some of the problems involved with rotated ("3D") pie charts.

These observations might be of mere academic interest except that studies have shown that not all observers interpret pie charts in the same way, One study, for example, found that 51 percent of pie chart viewers focused on the arcs of their sectors, 23 percent evaluated them according to their central angles, and only 25 percent interpreted them according to their areas.

One such feature is"explosion," as illustrated in Panel A of Exhibit 2 (and which was incorporated into the designs of nearly one-third of all pie charts the authors observed, and nearly 40 percent of all rotated charts).

This domain-level pie chart measures the relative importance of five parenting domains (the four domains measured by Bruce & Fox, 1997, plus breadwinning) in the same manner as the PIE-P, and it is scored in the same way.

What is the relationship between pie chart and scale measures of identity?

To address this question, the correlations between scale measures of identity and the PII and PII-CG, and the correlations between pie chart measures of identity and the PII and PII-CG, were compared at the role and the domain level (but not across levels).

Bar charts (or column charts) are sometimes preferable to pie charts for presenting the components of financial statement elements when dollar amount data are being presented instead of percentage data.

Pie charts would be helpful to display the composition of these items, while bar charts may be useful to highlight changes by reporting comparative data.

Pie charts are an effective way to display the proportional size of various components of an item such as sources of revenues, expenses of various functions, or classifications of net assets.