And topography is broken down into mountainous areas, fluvial plains, valley areas, hilly areas, alluvial fan areas, piedmont slope
areas, and diluvium areas.
These sites were: (1) A sandy site (C-SAND) on a middle piedmont-slope; (2) a sandy site near the creosotebush-grassland (C-SAND-G) ecotone on a NE-facing mid-piedmont slope; (3) a site 2 km upslope from a dry lake basin (C-SAND-IL) and a loamy haplargid soil; (4) a gravelly site (C-GRAV) on a lower piedmont slope with a sandy loam soil texture; (5) a gravelly, fine sandy loam (C-GRAV-RIDGE) site, and (6) a site along the banks of the adjacent ephemeral stream (C-GRAV-WASH).
On the E side of the Jornada, five sites were on the W-facing mid-piedmont slope of the San Andres mountain range approximately 50 km NE of Las Cruces, New Mexico, and one site was on the W-facing piedmont slope of the Organ Mountain Range 5 km E of Las Cruces; (7) a loamy-sand alluvial fan ridge that was plowed in 1972 and in 1973 (C-RIDGE-RP), and (8) an adjacent ephemeral stream that was plowed at the same time (C-WASH-RP); (9) a ridge (C-RIDGE) that was not plowed (approximately 0.5 km N of C-RIDGE-RP), and (10) the banks and islands of the adjacent ephemeral stream bed (C-WASH); (11) a site heavily eroded by overland water-flow (C-EROD), on the lower piedmont slope of the San Andres range, and (12) a desert pavement site (C-PAVE) on the lower alluvial piedmont of the Organ Mountains.
In the northern Chihuahuan Desert, creosotebush has spread from the well-drained ridges down the piedmont slopes and on to the flat plains in some locations (Buffington and Herbel, 1965).
The catchment area of River Indus in the North, its tributaries from the West and the shoulders of the Western mountain series like Koh-e- Safaid and Waziristan Hills, Sulaiman and Kirthar Mountains, Baluchistan Plateau, and the adjacent piedmont slopes
and soils used for agriculture are therefore subjected to agricultural practices disturbing the upper surface soil.