pilocarpine


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pilocarpine

(pīlōkär`pēn), naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from plants of the genus Pilocarpus (family Rutaceae). By mimicking the effects of acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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, pilocarpine acts as a stimulant of the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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. It promotes the flow of saliva and urine and increases perspiration. Because it increases the outflow of fluid from the eye, reduces the pressure within the eye, and causes the pupil to contract, the drug is used to treat some types of glaucoma. It is also used for some tongue disorders.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Pilocarpine

 

a cholinomimetic medicine. Pilocarpine is an alkaloid that is obtained from the plant Pilocarpus pinnatifolius, which grows mainly in Brazil. Supplied as the hydrochloride salt, it is used as an ointment or in droplet form for the treatment of certain eye diseases, including glaucoma.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

pilocarpine

[‚pī·lə′kär‚pēn]
(organic chemistry)
C11H16N2O2 An alkaloid, in either oil or crystal form, melting at 34°C; soluble in chloroform, water, and alcohol; used in medicine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The effects of a topical [Beta]-antagonist on IOP are synergistic with pilocarpine, and the two drugs are often prescribed together.
Persike et al., "Neuroprotective effect of pyruvate and oxaloacetate during pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in rats," Neurochemistry International, vol.
Within 1 h of the administration of pilocarpine, the percent of animals with no induced seizures, the latency to generalized convulsions, and the seizure severity were recorded to evaluate the potential of miR-146a mimics to improve seizure onset.
hypersensitive response to low dose 0.125% pilocarpine drops causes the otherwise slow-to-constrict pupil to constrict intensely, is considered diagnostically additive.
Freitas, "Vitamin C antioxidant effects in hippocampus of adult Wistar rats after seizures and status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine," Neuroscience Letters, vol.
Pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
The impetus for the study was an anecdotal report a few years ago of marked clinical improvement in cyclophos-phamide-induced vaginal dryness in four patients, along with a separate earlier report of significantly decreased vaginal dryness as a secondary outcome measure in a phase III trial of pilocarpine for oral and ocular dryness in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (Arch.
Pilocarpine (Salagen) tablets may be prescribed to increase salivary flow.
Among its most recent launches is pilocarpine hydrochloride 7.5-mg tablets.
Replens contains pilocarpine, which adheres to vaginal tissues, artificially thickening them to relieve dryness.
Cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine, carbachol) increase aqueous outflow from the eye by stimulating contraction of the ciliary body, which opens the trabecular meshwork to allow further drainage.
Most respondents (68.3%) used pilocarpine for both the positive and negative electrode.