However, both groups of animals displayed piloerection
and/or abnormal posture, as a result of infection.
In the experiments where survival was being evaluated, mice were separated from their experimental group and humanely sacrificed by cervical dislocation, when signs of distress (significant weight lost, fever, piloerection
, and hyperventilation) were detected.
The parameters, death, convulsions, sedation, excitation, jumping, abnormal gait (rolling, tiptoe), motor incoordination, loss of grasping, akinesia, catalepsy, loss of traction, loss of balance, forepaw treading, writhing, piloerection
, stereotypies (sniffing, chewing, and head movements), head-twitches, scratching, altered respiration, aggression, altered fear, altered reactivity to touch, ptosis, exophthalmia, loss of righting reflex, loss of corneal reflex, analgesia, defecation/diarrhoea, salivation, lacrimation, and pupil diameter (myosis/mydriasis), were recorded when exhibited.
Occurrences of tremors and piloerection
were observed immediately on the mice after oral gavage was performed.
Partial seizures manifest as auras like paraesthesias, flashing lights, flushing, sweating and piloerection
. Partial seizures arising from the temporal or frontal cortex may cause alterations in hearing, olfaction like unusual odours or psychic symptoms like sense of impending change, detachment, depersonalization, dejavu or illusions like micropsia or macropsia.
Three hours after the LPS challenge, rats manifested lethargy, piloerection
, diarrhea, huddling, and malaise, clear signs of endotoxic shock, as in previous studies (14).
Within 5 min after injection of Pc, all animals started developing a gradual and significant change in behavior including PCS (miosis, piloerection
, diarrohea, mild tremors, scratching, and salivation) and STM (sniffing, paw licking, and rearing) followed by seizures in 100% of the animals with a mean latency of 9.62 [+ or -] 1.2 min to develop seizure (Table 1).
Mice treated with MPTP-HCl (30 mg/kg) for a few minutes showed more apparent behavior disorder, conspicuous trembling, step-length shorten, bradykinesia, piloerection
Withdrawal can cause a sort of "sympathetic overdrive" manifested by spasticity, mydriasis, piloerection
, and impaired consciousness. This patient had spastic contractions but demonstrated a normal sensorium and no mydriasis or piloerection
 Grade 0: No shivering, Grade 1: One or more of the following: Piloerection
, peripheral vasoconstriction, peripheral cyanosis but without visible muscle activity, Grade 2: Visible muscle activity confined to one muscle group, Grade 3: Visible muscle activity in more than 1 muscle group and Grade 4: Gross muscle activity involving the whole body.
This procedure aimed to identify clinical symptoms of toxicity, such as piloerection
, behavioral alterations (hyper- or hypoactivity, head flicking), tremors, convulsion, and death.
Thirty minutes after administration, the animals were subjected to an initial period of observation of several CNS activityassociated behavioral parameters: locomotors activity, tremors, grip strength, bizarre behavior, convulsions, abdominal contortions, gait incapacity, piloerection
, palpebral closure, and constipation.