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see air navigationair navigation,
science and technology of determining the position of an aircraft with respect to the surface of the earth and accurately maintaining a desired course (see navigation).
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, pilotazh), the spatial maneuvering of airplanes or gliders to perform various figures in the air. Pilotage is subdivided into elementary, advanced, and aerobatic flying— depending on the degree of difficulty of the maneuver—and into solo and formation flying—depending on the number of airplanes or gliders. Pilotage has been most highly developed in the dogfights of fighter planes, where a plane must quickly take the most advantageous position for attacking the enemy or escape from the zone of enemy fire.

Elementary maneuvers include the 360° turn, the horizontal eight, the S-turn, the spiral, slipping, acceleration, deceleration, and dives and steep climbs where the flight-path angle with the horizon is less than 45°.

Examples of advanced maneuvers are the chandelle, the wingover, the semihalf-wingover, the barrel roll, the Nesterov loop, the oblique loop, the Immelmann, the hammerhead stall, and dives and steep climbs where the flight-path angle with the horizon is greater than 45°, and all the elementary maneuvers when performed by a group of planes in close formation.

Aerobatic maneuvers include the controllable roll, the one-and-a-half and multiple horizontal or ascending rolls, the one-and-a-half loop, the double Immelmann, the double ascending turn with a half-roll, the vertical eight, the spin, the possible combinations of advanced maneuvers or of elements of such maneuvers, all advanced maneuvers when performed by a group of planes, and all types of inverted flight.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The procedure of using landmarks, such as cities, towns, rivers, railroads, and prominent highways, to guide an aircraft to its destination
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A method of navigating from point to point with a visual reference to objects on the ground as opposed to navigating by means of electronic equipment in the aircraft.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
It is important to note that this paper's assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of two systems of pilotage oversight in no way implies any qualitative superiority of one type of pilot over another.
Amaechi who recalled that the tenure of the last pilotage board lapsed in 2016 and that some of the responsibilities of the pilotage boards might have suffered due to lack of attention said quick steps would be taken to address such matters.
Le ministre a precise que les efforts consentis jusqu'a present, doivent necessairement etre consolides, notamment en termes de strategie de pilotage.
The Marine Accident Investigation Branch added it considers Liverpool to be "the most professional and forward thinking pilotage service in the UK".
It is envisaged that the important area of river pilotage will require legislation from the member state if tendering is to take place.
L'etat des lieux laisse apparaEtre des carences structurelles en termes de pilotage intersectoriel et d'integration de l' nationale dans le monde.
More than 20 of his colleagues, who provide pilotage services for the port, are now preparing to ballot for industrial action next week in a campaign to win his reinstatement.
Services covered are pilotage, towage, mooring cargo, handling freight (loading and unloading, stowing and trans-shipment, for example) and passenger services (embarkation and disembarkation).