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see air navigationair navigation,
science and technology of determining the position of an aircraft with respect to the surface of the earth and accurately maintaining a desired course (see navigation).
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(Russian, pilotazh), the spatial maneuvering of airplanes or gliders to perform various figures in the air. Pilotage is subdivided into elementary, advanced, and aerobatic flying— depending on the degree of difficulty of the maneuver—and into solo and formation flying—depending on the number of airplanes or gliders. Pilotage has been most highly developed in the dogfights of fighter planes, where a plane must quickly take the most advantageous position for attacking the enemy or escape from the zone of enemy fire.

Elementary maneuvers include the 360° turn, the horizontal eight, the S-turn, the spiral, slipping, acceleration, deceleration, and dives and steep climbs where the flight-path angle with the horizon is less than 45°.

Examples of advanced maneuvers are the chandelle, the wingover, the semihalf-wingover, the barrel roll, the Nesterov loop, the oblique loop, the Immelmann, the hammerhead stall, and dives and steep climbs where the flight-path angle with the horizon is greater than 45°, and all the elementary maneuvers when performed by a group of planes in close formation.

Aerobatic maneuvers include the controllable roll, the one-and-a-half and multiple horizontal or ascending rolls, the one-and-a-half loop, the double Immelmann, the double ascending turn with a half-roll, the vertical eight, the spin, the possible combinations of advanced maneuvers or of elements of such maneuvers, all advanced maneuvers when performed by a group of planes, and all types of inverted flight.



The procedure of using landmarks, such as cities, towns, rivers, railroads, and prominent highways, to guide an aircraft to its destination


A method of navigating from point to point with a visual reference to objects on the ground as opposed to navigating by means of electronic equipment in the aircraft.
References in periodicals archive ?
The United States Supreme Court has stated, "[s]tudies of the long history of pilotage reveal that it is a unique institution and must be judged as such.
Deputy harbourmaster Bill Hirst has taken over as harbourmaster with focused and clear responsibility for the effectiveness of the port's deep sea marine operations including pilotage, vessel traffic services (VTS) and associated marine operations.
1922 saw the TPC superseded by the Tees Pilotage Authority which continued to monitor trade and the requirement for and training of pilots on this prospering river.
Speaking of pilotage services, it clearly says that operators should not be obliged to rely on services offered by the ports but should also be in a position to carry out this service themselves.
Mr Nevens, who grew up on South Tyneside, served a five-year apprenticeship from 1952-58 with the River Tyne Pilotage Authority, making him the sixth generation of Nevens to work on the river as a pilot.
Dotting these bright pastel maps, however, are symbols of American tactical pilotage charts (some of these zones are still contested).
Another chapter, one on "Ships and Sailors", replete with pictures and diagrams of vessels, details such matters as pilotage and navigation and accounts of sailor adventurers, particularly Phoenicians.
Actuellement, les etudiants inscrits au programme d'aviation du Sault College obtiennent une licence de pilote professionnel avec qualification de pilotage d'avions multimoteurs er de vol aux instruments de classe 1.
In a pilotage sensor, the refresh rate on a staring array is too slow, he said.
3) Because of this division, state and federal pilots are in competition in some ports,(4) and gaps in the regulatory system exist in some areas where the requirements for pilotage have not been well defined.
com/research/cc1af7/market_potential_c) has announced the addition of the "Market Potential Concept Study: Use of VTOL UAV For Harbour Pilotage (Vertical Take Off And Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)" report to their offering.