common name for members of the Pinaceae, a family of resinous woody trees with needlelike, usually evergreen leaves. The Pinaceae reproduce by means of cones (see cone
) rather than flowers and many have winged seeds, suitable for wind distribution. They are found chiefly in north temperate regions, where they form vast forests. The family was apparently more abundant in the mid-Cenozoic era, but it has maintained its population better than other gymnosperms because the trees are more adaptable to cold, dry climates; the reduced leaf surface and deep-set stomata minimize loss of water by transpiration. The family is the largest and most important of the conifers, providing naval stores, paper pulp, and more lumber by far than any other family. In some localities almost pure stands occur, permitting economical lumbering of large numbers of a given type of tree. Of the family's nine genera four are widely dispersed throughout North America and the Old World. Members of all nine genera are represented in horticulture as introduced timber trees or ornamentals. The so-called kauri pine, although pinelike in appearance, belongs to another family (see monkey-puzzle tree
The True Pines
Pinus (the true pines) is the largest and most widespread genus, characteristic of many north temperate regions (except the plains), especially at lower altitudes, and in a few tropical regions, notably on mountain slopes. Species of Pinus can often be identified by the leaf arrangement, one needle or clusters of from two to five (in all cases enclosed in a sheath at the base) being consistently produced by each type. Many of the pines are economically valuable; from them come the naval stores: pitch (see tar and pitch), turpentine, and rosin. Drying and nondrying oils are also made from the seeds of some pines. Several Mediterranean and American species yield edible seeds (see pine nut).
The ponderosa pine or western yellow pine (P. ponderosa), is a hard pine second only to the Douglas fir as a commercial timber tree in North America. The white pine (P. strobus) has straight-grained soft wood with little resin, used especially for interior trim and cabinetwork. It once grew densely from Newfoundland to Manitoba and over much of the E United States westward to Minnesota, but constant felling and attacks of white-pine blister rust have greatly depleted the stands, especially in the NE United States. The Norway pine, or red pine, (P. resinosa) has a similar range and has also suffered from overcutting. Its wood is somewhat heavier and is suitable for general construction. The Norway pine is frequently used in reforestation programs. The jack pine (P. banksiana), the most northern of the American species, thrives on poor and sandy soils and is much used to colonize areas where more valuable species may later be introduced. Although the trunk is often gnarled, making it unsuitable for good lumber, it supplies much pulpwood and is used locally for rough lumber, fuel, and crating. The Virginia pine (P. virginiana) of the Appalachians and the Piedmont is popular regionally as a Christmas tree. The longleaf pine, or Southern yellow pine (P. palustris) has needles that reach 18 in. (45 cm) in length and have been prized for making baskets and as mulch. Its highly resinous wood is used for heavy construction and as a major source of naval stores and pulpwood. It formerly was the keystone of forests that formed a savannalike ecosystem in much of the S United States. The longleaf pine and the faster growing slash pine (P. caribaea) of the same region have gained importance as northern pine stands have been depleted. The latter is widely cultivated in tropical areas with sandy soils. The Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), ranging from Scotland to Siberia and popular as a Christmas tree in the United States, is one of the most valuable timber trees of Europe. The cluster pine (P. pinaster), widespread in S France and in Spain, is the chief European source of turpentine. The Monterey pine (P. radiata) of California has been widely planted in New Zealand and Chile for reforestation.
Other Species in the Pine Family
Abies (fir) species are usually of more northern distribution and found at higher altitudes. Sap-filled “blisters” on the trunks of some species provide balsam. Larix (larch) and Pseudolarix (golden larch, of China) are the only two deciduous genera. Picea (spruce) is the world's most important source of paper. Cedrus (cedar) ranges from the Mediterranean area to the Himalayas; Keteleeria is restricted to E and SE Asia.
Tsuga (hemlock) and Pseudotsuga are native only to North America and E Asia. Pseudotsuga menziesii (the Douglas fir) of W North America, one of the tallest trees known (up to 385 ft/117 m) and the leading timber-producing tree of the continent, is carefully controlled by forestry measures. Its wood, usually hard and strong, is of great commercial importance for construction; it is also commonly used as a Christmas tree in the United States. Named for David Douglas, the tree has many local names, e.g., Douglas spruce, Oregon pine, red fir, and yellow fir.
Pines are classified in the division Pinophyta
, class Pinopsida, order Coniferales.
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A wood of a number of species of coniferous evergreens. The two classes, soft pine and hard pitch pine are an important source of construction lumber and plywood. See also: Masonite
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
All pine trees are edible. The whole thing- the needles, the young tiny soft (male) cones containing the pollen, the white inner bark (cambium) can be eaten raw, dried, powdered, added to soups, sauteed, steamed or boiled. One pound of inner pine bark is more nutritious than nine cups of raw whole milk. Pine nuts are super nutritious. The roots can be eaten and the root bark can be soaked in water and the water then drank as sugar water. The resin pitch gum can be chewed like gum for B vitamins and helping lung conditions. The only thing close to a pine tree being toxic is a yew tree, (not a pine tree). It's "needles" are actually soft flat thin leaves and it has tell-tale red berries with a hole in the bottom. Anyway, pine trees are one of the best sources of vitamin C in the world. Pine needles have 300x more vitamin c than oranges- also contain natural turpentines which are really good for respiratory infections- pneumonia, bronchitis. Pine bud tea is used to expel worms, help kidneys, lungs, laxative. You can munch on fresh young needles, or make a tea from them. Despite what some people say, pine tea is no threat to pregnant women. The sticky gum-resin is a great source of B-vitamins, pine nuts are an awesome source of protein, and the pollen… well... PINE POLLEN Want serious Libido, Energy and Youth ? Look no further than pine pollen. It's a true powerhouse wonder substance… a complete food and medicine. Pine Pollen is one of the ultimate superfoods in the world. It has over 200 bioacitve natural nutrients, minerals and vitamins source in one single serving, that is completely absorbed by the human body. No other nutritional supplement can do this. Pine Pollen will restore healthy levels of testosterone (without DHT). Pine pollen powder's claim to fame is the potent androgenic effect it has on the body. It contains bio-available androstenedione, testosterone, DHEA, androsterone and a wide variety of other steroidal type substances (which unlike synthetic steroids, these are perfectly safe)! These anabolic compounds not only help build muscle mass, they keep the skin smooth and tight, maintain a healthy libido, optimize tissue regeneration, optimize breast health in women and testicular and prostate health in men, aid in the excretion of excess estrogens and speed up the metabolism to help burn off excess fat. Since it's a complete superfood, it affects pretty much the entire body... lungs, immune system, skin, kidneys, brain, hair, bones, endocrine, liver regeneration, bile secretion, heart, increases cardiovascular endurance, raises blood levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) perhaps the most powerful and crucial antioxidant the body makes, lowers cholesterol, spleen... all in the direction of anti-aging. Pine pollen stabilizes collagen and elastin, which make up the underlying matrix of the skin, thus preventing wrinkles. Pine pollen balances hormones. The phyto-androgens in pine pollen help to counter the effects of estrogen mimicking substances that we are exposed to more and more of like plastic bottles, food containers, body care products, cleaners, medications, plastics, dairy products and more can mimic estrogens in our bodies and lead to hair loss and Pine pollen is more stimulating and energizing than coffee without the caffeine or stimulants. It’s 30% protein. Increases sexual power in both men and women. Less recovery time from gym and less sleep. Helps nourish skin and hair, clears brain fog, removes age spots. Rutin, one of the components of pine pollen, increases the strength of the capillary vessels and helps protect the cardiovascular system, heart, blood and blood vessels. Pine pollen is 99% digestible, much more than bee pollen. Over 20 Amino Acids and 8 Essential Amino Acids Making Pine Pollen A Complete Protein: Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic, Cysteine, Glutamic, Acid, Glycine, Histidine,Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanie, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine. Some people are allergic to pollen (a sign the liver needs cleaning and adrenals need rebuilding), so take a tiny bit first (1/8 tsp) and see how you react. Gradually build up as your body adapts to its potency. Recommended Usage: one spoonful twice daily. You can harvest your own pine pollen. Find out what time of year in your area the pine trees pollinate (when yellow powder coats everything). Usually mid April for northern countries. You can place the bag over the ends of the pine tree branches and gently knock the cones to get the pine pollen yellow powder to fall off into the bag. PINE, SPRUCE or FIR TREE PITCH - GUM- RESIN When a pine tree is injured, it secretes resin, which is a protective antiseptic, full of B vitamins. It’s very sticky and hard to get off skin, so it's good for sealing wounds together, and keep it sterile because it's an antiseptic. It will stick to your teeth until it dissolves, leaving your teeth white again. It can be used as glue, and can be taken off with oils or butter. It’s actually been used to seal root canals! Chew and swallow small pieces- helps bring phlegm up out of lungs (expectorant). PINE BARK has Pycnogenol- a highly active bioflavonoid. It doubles blood vessel strength, improves circulation, joint flexibility, defend collagen destruction, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, protect brain cells and slow the aging process. It strengthens the entire arterial system. Used in Europe as an "oral cosmetic" because it stimulates collagen-rich connective tissue against atherosclerosis and helps joint flexibility. It is one of the few dietary antioxidants that crosses the blood-brain barrier to directly protect brain cells. (Pycnogenol is also found in grape seed extract) PINE NUTS are an amazing food source, used by indians, birds and squirrels. Indians used pine nut soup as a replacement for mothers milk! Lost in the woods? The Eastern white pine (the one with the long needles) can help you find your way. It always has a big huge diagonal branch pointing EAST. Is the Australian Pine edible? Yes.
Edible Plant Guide © 2012 Markus Rothkranz
Any of the cone-bearing trees composing the genus Pinus; characterized by evergreen leaves (needles), usually in tight clusters of two to five.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The wood of a number of species of coniferous evergreen distributed throughout the world; may be divided into two classes: soft (white) pine and hard (pitch) pine. An important source of construction lumber and plywood.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
the wood of any of these trees
1. any evergreen resinous coniferous tree of the genus Pinus, of the N hemisphere, with long needle-shaped leaves and brown cones: family Pinaceae
2. any other tree or shrub of the family Pinaceae
3. any of various similar but unrelated plants, such as ground pine and screw pine
Courtney. born 1964, British jazz saxophonist
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
Program for Internet News & Email. A tool for reading,
sending, and managing electronic messages. It was designed
specifically with novice computer users in mind, but can be
tailored to accommodate the needs of "power users" as well.
Pine uses Internet
message protocols (e.g. RFC 822
) and runs under Unix
The guiding principles for Pine's user-interface were: careful
limitation of features, one-character mnemonic commands,
always-present command menus, immediate user feedback, and
high tolerance for user mistakes. It is intended that Pine
can be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals.
Feedback from the University of Washington community and a
growing number of Internet
sites has been encouraging.
Pine's message composition editor, Pico
, is also available
as a separate stand-alone program. Pico is a very simple and
easy-to-use text editor
offering paragraph justification,
cut/paste, and a spelling checker.
Pine features on-line help; a message index showing a message
summary which includes the status, sender, size, date and
subject of messages; commands to view and process messages; a
message composer with easy-to-use editor and spelling checker;
an address book for saving long complex addresses and personal
distribution lists under a nickname; message attachments via
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
commands for creating, deleting, listing, or renaming message
folders; access to remote message folders and archives via the
Interactive Mail Access Protocol as defined in RFC 1176;
access to Usenet
news via NNTP
and UW's IMAP server
are copyrighted but
Pine runs on Ultrix
PTX. PC-Pine is available for Packet Driver
, Novell LWP, FTP PC/TCP and Sun
PC/NFS. A Microsoft Windows
version is planned, as are extensions for
Pine was originally based on Elm
but has evolved much since
("Pine Is No-longer Elm"). Pine is the work of Mike Seibel,
Mark Crispin, Steve Hubert, Sheryl Erez, David Miller and
Laurence Lundblade (now at Virginia Tech) at the University of
Washington Office of Computing and Communications.ftp://ftp.cac.washington.edu/mail/pine.tar.Z
(login as "pinedemo").
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)