piston


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

piston

a disc or cylindrical part that slides to and fro in a hollow cylinder. In an internal-combustion engine it is forced to move by the expanding gases in the cylinder head and is attached by a pivoted connecting rod to a crankshaft or flywheel, thus converting reciprocating motion into rotation

Piston

 

the moving component of a reciprocating engine that is fitted to the internal surface of a cylinder and moves back and forth along the direction of the cylinder’s axis. In engines, power cylinders, and presses, the piston transmits the pressure of a working fluid—gas, vapor, or liquid—to the moving parts. In some types of engines, such as two-cycle internal-combustion engines, the piston also plays a role in the gas distribution process. In pumps and compressors, the suction, compression, and delivery of the liquid or gas are accomplished by the reciprocating piston.

A piston may be of the trunk, disk, or plunger type, depending on the piston’s length-to-diameter ratio and on the piston’s design. The trunk piston, whose length is somewhat greater than its diameter, has a head, grooves for piston rings, and a guide skirt. The height of a disk piston is determined only by the size of the sealing device; the rod on which the piston is mounted serves to align the piston. The plunger piston, whether a plunger, ram, or pin, usually operates with a smooth surface; its length is several times greater than its diameter.

In rotary-piston internal-combustion engines, a rotor performs the functions of a piston in transmitting the pressure of a working fluid to the moving parts.

piston

[′pis·tən]
(electromagnetism)
A sliding metal cylinder used in waveguides and cavities for tuning purposes or for reflecting essentially all of the incident energy. Also known as plunger; waveguide plunger.
(engineering)
(mechanical engineering)
A sliding metal cylinder that reciprocates in a tubular housing, either moving against or moved by fluid pressure.

piston

piston
A sliding plug in an actuating cylinder that converts pressure into force and then into work. In reciprocating engines, a piston compresses the fuel-air mixture and transmits force from expanding gases in the cylinder to the crankshaft.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ivantysynova [4] demonstrated a model of a gap flow in the piston pair.
Therefore, the test selected a relatively small BW-160 triplex single-acting mud pump piston as a research object, and the test results and conclusion were applicable to large-scale mud pump pistons.
What Feinwerkbau discovered in early 1970 was that a long piston stroke was one of the secrets to power in a spring-piston airgun.
Experimental investigations were carried out in a single cylinder, four stroke direct injection diesel engine under identical conditions for uncoated piston and multilayered ceramic coated piston.
The six top piston rings (one in each cylinder) were bulk activated via thermal neutron bombardment within a research reactor.
In this case due the development of the new MonoLite[R] piston in combination with the new carbon based piston pin coating was possible to contribute significantly to the fuel consumption reduction by minimizing the friction losses and contributing to a relevant reduction of the oscillating masses.
Removal revealed seized rings and severe piston erosion.
Technavio analysts forecast the global piston pin market to grow at a CAGR of 5.55% over the period 2014-2019.
Located in Hudson, Massachusetts, the company offers a wide range of pumps for liquids, gases, and air, including diaphragm pumps, piston pumps, rotary vane pumps, gear pumps, peristaltic pumps, impeller pumps, centrifugal pumps, and bellows pumps.
The free piston engine offers a number of advantages over a traditional reciprocating engine coupled to a rotary generator: firstly, the powertrain from piston to generator is dramatically simplified.