The coupler slack and the relation between main piston displacement
and orifice area in distribution valve can change the in-train force when braking, and the other case, such as traction or dynamic brake, the distribution valve structure change will not effects the in-train force.
and e, [??], [??] are the errors of the piston displacement
, velocity and acceleration respectively, t denotes the time, and [x.sub.d]'s are desired state values.
Figure 8 shows the effect of evaporator temperature piston displacement
of compressor of R290/R600a (0.9/0.1) mixture and [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]/R290/R600a (0.04/0.9/0.1).
Substituting equation 1 into equation 2 to make simultaneous equations, then eliminating X', then we could get the relation expression of X between the brake pedal stroke of the brake master cylinder piston displacement
of the first X1.
where [x.sub.L] and M are the piston displacement
and the load mass, respectively.
The aim of this research was to examine the characteristics of resistance force (force dependencies on piston displacement
) generated by linear hydraulic cylinder type loading devices of exercisers acting in different regimes (resistance level and piston speed).
The model uses the piston displacement
and velocity as input and calculates the damper force given by (1) and (2).
Figure 9 shows that the piston displacement
of the boom cylinder in the two systems is quite similar.
For transfer function of cylinder piston displacement
output [X.sub.p] for
where x is the piston displacement
, M is the piston mass, [A.sub.p] is the piston area, [P.sub.left] and [P.sub.right] are the left and right combustion chamber pressures, [F.sub.f] and [F.sub.hyd] are the forces from friction and hydraulic chamber, respectively.
All vehicle imports, whether brand-new or used, purchased or donated, are subject to a 40 percent customs duty on top of the 10 percent value-added tax and ad valorem tax ranging from 15 percent to 100 percent, depending on its piston displacement
. The vehicle is assessed based on book value and not on its purchase price or acquisition cost.
The figure shows the measured piston displacement
(a), the displacement error [[increment of x].sub.er] = [[increment of x].sub.meas] - [[increment of x].sub.act] (b), and the measured reflection coefficient (c).