pitch

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pitch,

in aviation: see airplaneairplane,
 aeroplane,
or aircraft,
heavier-than-air vehicle, mechanically driven and fitted with fixed wings that support it in flight through the dynamic action of the air.
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; airfoilairfoil,
surface designed to develop a desired force by reaction with a fluid, especially air, that is flowing across the surface. For example, the fixed wing surfaces of an airplane produce lift, which opposes gravity.
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.

pitch,

in music, the position of a tone in the musical scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
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, today designated by a letter name and determined by the frequency of vibration of the source of the tone. Pitch is an attribute of every musical tone; the fundamental, or first harmonicharmonic.
1 Physical term describing the vibration in segments of a sound-producing body (see sound). A string vibrates simultaneously in its whole length and in segments of halves, thirds, fourths, etc.
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, of any tone is perceived as its pitch. The earliest successful attempt to standardize pitch was made in 1858, when a commission of musicians and scientists appointed by the French government settled upon an A of 435 cycles per second; this standard was adopted by an international conference at Vienna in 1889. In the United States, however, the prevailing standard is an A of 440 cycles per second. Before the middle of the 19th cent., pitch varied according to time, place, and medium of musical performance; since the classical period the trend has been gradually upward. The relative pitch of a tone, in contrast to absolute pitchabsolute pitch,
the position of a tone in the musical scale determined according to its number of vibrations per second, irrespective of other tones. The term also denotes the capacity to identify any tone upon hearing it sounded alone or to sing any specified tone.
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, is an expression of its pitch in relation to the pitch of some other tone taken as a standard.

pitch:

see tar and pitchtar and pitch,
viscous, dark-brown to black substances obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, wood, petroleum, peat, and certain other organic materials. The heating or partial burning of wood to make charcoal yields tar as a byproduct and is an ancient method for the
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.

Pitch

Angle of a roof, or the proportion between the height and span of the roof.

Pitch

 

a readily melting, bituminous substance, insoluble in water.

Light and black pitch are distinguished. Black pitch is a product of the processing of ligneous or coal tars; it is used in the production of compound filler in shoe manufacture.

Light pitch is composed of rosin, petroleum oils, paraffin, wax, and several other substances; it is used to impregnate fibers in shoe manufacture and also in the production of putties, particularly gardening putty, which is used to cover grafts and wounds caused by pruning or damage to trees. Gardening putty keeps the injured areas in plants from drying out and protects these areas from water, air, bacteria, fungi, and insects.


Pitch

 

the residue from the distillation of coking, semicoking, shale, pyrolytic, or other resins, and also of peat tar or wood tar. It is a solid (sometimes thick and viscous) black mass with a conchoidal fracture upon impact. It is plastic under a constant load.

A distinction is made among coal pitch, peat pitch, wood pitch, and petroleum pitch, according to the initial material. Coal pitch is composed predominantly of macromolecular aromatic hydrocarbons; it also contains higher phenols and organic bases. The insoluble fraction of pitch contains 8–30 percent free carbon, depending on the softening point; 0.2 percent and more ash; and asphaltenes. The density is 1.2–1.3 g/cm3.

Pitch is not electrically conductive. It is insoluble in water (peat and wood pitch contain small quantities of water-soluble substances) but soluble in many organic solvents, such as pyridine and benzene; it is resistant to acids. Pitch is mainly used in the preparation of electrode (ash-free) coke, as a binder in the briquetting of solid fuels, as waterproofing material, in the manufacture of tar paper and roofing felt, and in the preparation of varnishes for dyeing metal structures.

D. D. ZYKOV


Pitch

 

the angular motion of an aircraft or vessel relative to the principal lateral axis of inertia. The pitch attitude is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft or vessel and the horizontal plane. In aviation, two types of pitch are distinguished: pitch with an increase in the pitch attitude and pitch with a decrease in the pitch attitude. Each is controlled by use of the aircraft’s elevators.

pitch

[pich]
(acoustics)
That psychological property of sound characterized by highness or lowness, depending primarily upon frequency of the sound stimulus, but also upon its sound pressure and waveform.
(architecture)
The ratio of the rise of a roof to its span.
(cell and molecular biology)
The distance between two adjacent turns of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
(computer science)
The distance between the centerlines of adjacent rows of hole positions in punched paper tape.
(design engineering)
The distance between similar elements arranged in a pattern or between two points of a mechanical part, as the distance between the peaks of two successive grooves on a disk recording or on a screw.
(geology)
(graphic arts)
The number of characters printed per horizontal inch on a typewriter or computer printer.
(materials)
A dark heavy liquid or solid substance obtained as a residue after distillation of tar, oil, and such materials; occurs naturally as asphalt.
(mechanics)
Of an aerospace vehicle, an angular displacement about an axis parallel to the lateral axis of the vehicle.
The rising and falling motion of the bow of a ship or the tail of an airplane as the craft oscillates about a transverse axis.
(science and technology)
The inclination or degree of slope of an object or structure.

pitch

1. The slope of a roof, usually expressed as a ratio of vertical rise to horizontal run, or in inches (centimeters) of rise per foot (meter) of run.
2.See grade.
3. The slope of a stair flight, i.e., the ratio of the rise to the run of the flight.
4. The distance between centers of bolts, rivets, and other fasteners in the same line.
5.See carpet pitch.
6. In acoustics, that attribute of auditory sensation in which sounds may be ordered on a scale from low to high; depends primarily on the frequency of the sound stimulus.
7. Any of various resins.
8. A dark, viscous, distillate of tar; used in caulking and paving; also called pitch mastic. Also See coal-tar pitch.
9. In masonry, to square a stone with a chisel.

pitch

pitch
pitch
pitch
pitch
pitch
i. The rotation of an aircraft about its lateral axis.
ii. The distance a propeller will advance in one revolution if there is no slip. Also called a propeller pitch.
iii. The angular setting of a helicopter main or tail rotor blade relative to the axis of rotation and measured at a defined station.
iv. The rotation of a camera about the axis parallel to the vehicle's lateral axis. Also known as a tip.
v. The distance between the centers of adjacent rivets installed in the same row. The distance between rows of rivets is called a gauge.
vi. The distance moved forward in one revolution by a screw. Also known as the pitch of a screw.

pitch

1
1. Mountaineering a section of a route between two belay points, sometimes equal to the full length of the rope but often shorter
2. the degree of slope of a roof, esp when expressed as a ratio of height to span
3. the distance between corresponding points on adjacent members of a body of regular form, esp the distance between teeth on a gearwheel or between threads on a screw thread
4. the distance between regularly spaced objects such as rivets, bolts, etc.
5. 
a. the distance a propeller advances in one revolution, assuming no slip
b. the blade angle of a propeller or rotor
6. Music
a. the auditory property of a note that is conditioned by its frequency relative to other notes
b. an absolute frequency assigned to a specific note, fixing the relative frequencies of all other notes. The fundamental frequencies of the notes A--G, in accordance with the frequency A = 440 hertz, were internationally standardized and accepted in 1939
7. Cricket the rectangular area between the stumps, 22 yards long and 10 feet wide; the wicket
8. Geology the inclination of the axis of an anticline or syncline or of a stratum or vein from the horizontal
9. another name for seven-up
10. the act or manner of pitching a ball, as in cricket
11. Chiefly Brit a vendor's station, esp on a pavement
12. Golf an approach shot in which the ball is struck in a high arc

pitch

2
1. any of various heavy dark viscid substances obtained as a residue from the distillation of tars
2. any of various similar substances, such as asphalt, occurring as natural deposits
3. any of various similar substances obtained by distilling certain organic substances so that they are incompletely carbonized
4. crude turpentine obtained as sap from pine trees

pitch

The number of printed characters per inch. With proportionally spaced characters, the pitch is variable and must be measured as an average. See dot pitch and pitch-yaw-roll.