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an individual of a group (Pithecanthropus) of ancient humans—the Archanthropines. Pithecanthropoid bones have been found on Java. The first remains—a skull cap, a femur, and teeth—were discovered in 1890–92 by the Dutch anthropologist E. Dubois. By 1973, skull fragments, lower jaws, femur fragments, and teeth from more than 20 individuals had been found. Of particular interest is a skull with an intact facial skeleton, which was discovered in 1969.

The pithecanthropi had a fully erect gait and a large (averaging 900 cc), complex brain. The low skull was sharply angulate in back. There was a prominent brow ridge and a jawbone with a receding chin. The Pithecanthropus, along with the Sinanthropus, the Atlanthropus, the Heidelberg man, and the Oldoway man, has been assigned to the species Homo erectus. The age of the Pithecanthropus had been estimated at 500,000 to 700,000 years until 1972, when new data placed it as far back as 1.2 million years.


Uryson, M. I. “Pitekantropy, sinantropy i blizkie im formy gominid.” In the collection Iskopaemye gominidy i proiskhozhdenie cheloveka. Moscow, 1966.