Though more parameters used for quantifying the effect of crack in structural component plane strain
fracture toughness is the frequently used one.
More recently, several numerical studies have also been carried out for circular tunnels, mainly confined to 2D plane strain
analysis, to evaluate the dynamic response of underground structures subject to earthquakes (Hishashi, 2001 & 2005; Barla, 2008; Len et al.
where E' = E for plane stress condition and E' = E/(1 - [v.sup.2]) for plane strain
condition, with ] representing the Poisson ratio.
(i) The borehole is drilled in an infinite geological body, so the problem can be regarded as a plane strain
2) were defined according to the guidelines of ASTM D5045-14 standard in order to satisfy the plane strain
versus Plane Stress in the Mechanical Bidomain Model.
The analysis is performed under plane strain
 developed a 2D micromechanistic model which considered intergranular cracks and intragranular cracks to predict the response of graphite under temperature changes and irradiation, and this model was appropriate for generalized plane strain
Labuz, "Plane Strain
Testing with Passive Restraint," Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol.
Allowing more rigorous treatment of pile surrounding soil, Novak  developed the plane strain
model assuming an elastic soil layer consisting of independent infinitesimally thin horizontal layers extending to infinity.