plant breeding

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plant breeding,

science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Other goals are adaptation of crops to modern production techniques such as mechanical harvesting and improvement in the market quality of the product.

Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods, creating desirable hybridshybrid
, term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see genetics).
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; breeders also now attempt to induce favorable genetic mutationsmutation,
in biology, a sudden, random change in a gene, or unit of hereditary material, that can alter an inheritable characteristic. Most mutations are not beneficial, since any change in the delicate balance of an organism having a high level of adaptation to its environment
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 by the use of ultraviolet light, gamma radiation, or chemicals. With the development of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, plant breeders have increasingly used its techniques to introduce desirable traits (i.e., genes), often from other species, into cultivated plants.

See also breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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References in periodicals archive ?
M2 PRESSWIRE-September 4, 2019-: Lifeasible Offers a Wide Array of Plant Breeding Services
Its 14th International Conference on Plant Breeding for Sustainable Development was held last July in Gwangju, Korea.
ENPNewswire-July 29, 2019--University of Munster: BIOLOGISTS WANT NEW RULES FOR PLANT BREEDING;Open statement by European scientists to the EU / Participation of researchers at Munster University
Among the scholars include Muhammad Siddique Raza from the National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Muhammad Rizwan from the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sonia Munir from the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Farah Anjum from the Department of Physics, Hafiz Muhammad Safdar Khan from the Department of Structures and Environmental Engineering, Shahzad Tahir from the Department of Agronomy, Ana Aslam from the Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Munaza Naseem from the Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Hassan Ali Farooq from the Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, Tariq Mahmood from the Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries and Salman Mushtaq from the Institute of Horticultural Sciences.
A wide range of issues of interstate cooperation in the field of seed production, plant breeding, viticulture and gardening has been put on the agenda.
Speaking at an event titled Zaraee Baithak, arranged by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Ashraf termed the use of smart agriculture machinery vital at the national level for small farmers.
In the most basic sense, this plant breeding innovation works as a quick edit to an organism's DNA--think the cut, copy or paste function but on a microscopic level.
Improving our agricultural crops through plant breeding depends on the exchange of plant genetics to improve yield, agronomic performance, nutrition, and flavor.
The departments which have been merged included: Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bio Technology and Seed Science and Technology.
Qaiser Mushtaq, Vice Chancellor visited cotton crop cultivated by department of Plant Breeding and Genetics in experimental area at University Agriculture Farm.