planter


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planter,

farm or garden implement that places propagating material such as seeds or seedlings into the ground, usually in rows. Broadcasting, i.e., scattering seed in all directions, by hand followed by harrowing (see harrowharrow,
farm implement, consisting of a wooden or metal framework bearing metal disks, teeth, or sharp projecting points, called tines, which is dragged over plowed land to pulverize the clods of earth and level the soil.
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) to cover the seed with soil was an early method of planting. Mechanical planters for small grains appeared in the United States around 1800; corn and cotton planters followed (1840–1880). Machines are currently available for almost every crop, including transplanting or plant-setting machines, which place live seedlings into the soil at spaced intervals, supply them with water and fertilizer, then close and pack the soil around them.

Bibliography

See H. P. Smith, Farm Machinery and Equipment (5th ed. 1964); C. Culpin, Farm Machinery (8th ed. 1969).

Planter

A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.

Planter

 

a machine for the uniform sowing of crop and grass seed by depositing the seeds in the soil at the required depth. Planters can also be used for sowing tree seeds in nurseries and for depositing mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are classified according to the sowing method. Seed drills deposit seeds continuously using the row, narrow-row, wide-row, or band seeding method. Checkrow planters deposit clusters of seeds at the corners of squares or rectangles. Hill-drop planters distribute clusters of seeds in rows. Single-seed planters sow individual seeds at uniform intervals in wide rows. Broadcasters scatter fertilizers and seeds, such as grass seed for improving natural pastures, onto the surface of a field.

A distinction is made between general-purpose and special-purpose planters. General-purpose planters are used for sowing seeds of various crops; for instance, planters designed for grain seeds and grain-and-grass seeds can be used for sowing seeds for grain, bean, and olive crops, grass seed, and seed for bast crops. Special-purpose planters are designed for sowing seed for a single crop or a limited number of crops, for example, beet, cotton, corn, and vegetable crops. Planters may be combined with fertilizer attachments that deposit mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are also classified according to the traction method used as tractor-driven (mounted or trailer-type), horse-drawn, or manually propelled. Only tractor-driven planters are manufactured in the USSR.

Each planter has one or two hoppers or several separate boxes for the seeds. A seeding mechanism feeds the seeds at a uniform rate from the hopper or boxes to seed spouts. Shares form furrows in the soil, and the seeds are deposited in the furrows. Covering devices deposit soil in the furrows and level the surface of the field. Some planters have stirrers located in the hopper; the stirrers prevent the seeds from sticking together in clumps and ensure better feeding of the seeds to the seeding mechanism. In broadcasters, a flat distributing device is mounted behind the seeding mechanism; the seeds fall uniformly from the device onto the field. The working elements, that is, the seeding mechanisms and stirrers, are rotated by a direct drive (in mounted planters) or by a support-wheel drive (in trailer-type planters) using chain or gear drives. Foreign planters use similar engineering designs.

In the USSR other types of planters are also used for planting crop seeds. They include combination planter-plows, planter-cultivators, and planter-stubble plows. Planter-plows are equipped with a plow body, seed hoppers with seeding mechanisms, and seed spouts. The machines simultaneously plow and deposit seeds in the furrows formed by the plow body. Planter-cultivators are designed to work soil previously worked by machines without moldboards; they are also able to plant seeds in stubble land. They simultaneously sow, loosen the soil, cut weeds, deposit mineral fertilizer in the rows, and turn over the seeded rows. Planter-stubble plows have stubble disks and spool-type seeding mechanisms with seed spouts. The seeds pass through the spouts into furrows formed by the disks and are later covered with soil.

REFERENCE

Karpenko, A. N., and A. A. Zelenev. Sel’skokhoziaistvennye mashiny, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.

planter

A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.
References in classic literature ?
So Tom argued with himself that it was an immense advantaged for Roxy to have a master who was pleased with her, as this planter manifestly was.
He went to the planter, and "My mother's dead," said he, weeping.
He had," one of the passengers, a coconut planter from the Shortlands, interjected.
One morning in July, 1854, a planter named Williamson, living six miles from Selma, Alabama, was sitting with his wife and a child on the veranda of his dwelling.
I seem once to have lived near a great city, a prosperous planter, married to a woman whom I loved and distrusted.
A man named Abelwhite, who had come out there as an indigo- planter, wanted an overseer to look after his coolies and keep them up to their work.
Nay, the farmer, the planter, the gardener, must perfect by experience what he hath acquired the rudiments of by reading.
Reserve gradually gave way before the propriety and candour of their spirited young leader, and it was not long ere the affluent planter rejoiced as much as his daughter, whenever the well known signal, at the gate, announced one of these agreeable visits from the commander of the post.
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
I was going to say more, but he interrupted me, smiling, and told me, with a great deal of modesty, that I mistook in my guesses--that he had nothing of that kind in his thoughts; and he was very glad to hear that I had an intent of putting them in a way to see their own country again; and nothing should have made him think of staying there, but that the voyage I was going was so exceeding long and hazardous, and would carry him quite out of the reach of all his friends; that he had nothing to desire of me but that I would settle him in some little property in the island where he was, give him a servant or two, and some few necessaries, and he would live here like a planter, waiting the good time when, if ever I returned to England, I would redeem him.
On these occasions there was a degree of magnificence of the purse about them, and a peculiar propensity to expenditure at the goldsmith's and jeweler's for rings, chains, brooches, necklaces, jeweled watches, and other rich trinkets, partly for their own wear, partly for presents to their female acquaintances; a gorgeous prodigality, such as was often to be noticed in former times in Southern planters and West India creoles, when flush with the profits of their plantations.
But moil not too much under ground; for the hope of mines is very uncertain, and useth to make the planters lazy, in other things.