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An adhesive substance, the glycocalyx, and the bacterial community which it envelops at the interface of a liquid and a surface. When a liquid is in contact with an inert surface, any bacteria within the liquid are attracted to the surface and adhere to it. In this process the bacteria produce the glycocalyx. The bacterial inhabitants within this microenvironment benefit as the biofilm concentrates nutrients from the liquid phase. However, these activities may damage the surface, impair its efficiency, or develop within the biofilm a pathogenic community that may damage the associated environment. Microbial fouling or biofouling are the terms applied to these actual or potentially undesirable consequences.

Microbial fouling affects a large variety of surfaces under various conditions. Microbial biofilms may form wherever bacteria can survive; familiar examples are dental plaque and tooth decay. Dental plaque is an accumulation of bacteria, mainly streptococci, from saliva. The process of tooth decay begins with the bacteria colonizing fissures in and contact points between the teeth. Dietary sucrose is utilized by the bacteria to form extracellular glucans that make up the glycocalyx and assist adhesion to the tooth. Within this microbial biofilm or plaque the metabolic by-products of the bacterial inhabitants are trapped; these include acids that destroy the tooth enamel, dentin, or cementum.


A microbial (bacterial, fungal, algal) community, enveloped by the extracellular biopolymer which these microbial cells produce, that adheres to the interface of a liquid and a surface.
References in periodicals archive ?
Test subjects using a Water Flosser in conjunction with a manual toothbrush had up to 29% better reduction in plaque biofilm than people who used a manual toothbrush and string floss.
For the study, teeth from patients with extensive gum disease and plaque build-up were extracted, and then processed to accelerate additional plaque biofilm growth.
The results similarly showed that Water Flosser users had greater reductions in bleeding, gingivitis and plaque biofilm plus significant reductions in IL-1B and [PGE.
Undisturbed plaque biofilms were recovered using a modification of the plaque-generating device (MPGD) described by Robinson et al.
This site is dedicated to promoting professional supervision as the only and best way to whiten, emphasizing the need to establish optimal oral health and that whitening success is contingent on thorough instrumentation and removal of surface stain, calculus and plaque biofilm.
Addition of daily oral care addresses dental plaque biofilm, a proven VAP risk factor.
Watch and learn from leading dental professionals and scientists how bacteria multiply and collect in the mouth to form a thick layer called plaque biofilm, which is more harmful than free-flowing bacteria and may increase the potential for bad breath and gingivitis.
However, traditional measures of detecting plaque biofilm by staining and viewing with the naked eye provide only a cursory view, limited to the visible tooth surface and not interproximal or subgingival areas.
The system includes the new ProResults brush head that removes more plaque biofilm in hard-to-reach areas, posterior teeth, interproximal spaces, between teeth and along the gumline than competing brushes.
New innovation in 2008 added additional enzymes that attack and breakdown plaque biofilm.
Philips Sonicare power toothbrushes are proven to promote and improve oral health, from reducing plaque biofilm build-up to improving overall gum health and have demonstrated the ability to encourage more consistent brushing between dental visits.