The signals at 72.5 eV ([4f.sub.7/2]) and 75.4 eV ([4f.sub.5/2]) correspond to a 37% of the total platinum and can be ascribed to platinum oxide
. These results indicate that the reduction of Pt (IV) to Pt[degrees] indeed took place and that Pt nanoparticles were supported onto the bovine-bone powder in controlled size and shape.
The electrode behavior changed if the electrode was preoxidized producing a platinum oxide
On exposure to oxygen the platinum surface is oxidised, resulting in the formation of an inactive surface platinum oxide
. This is also referred to as over oxidation and sub-surface oxygen formation.
Some specific subjects discussed include formation of metal-semiconductor core-shell nanoparticles using electrochemical atomic layer deposition, and remote plasma and thermal ALD of platinum and platinum oxide
Platinum oxide, Karstedl's catalyst (platinum (0)-L3-divinyl-l,l,33-tet-ramethyl disilo'xane complex), 1-iodooctane, CD[Cl.sub.3] dimethyl sulfoxide.
Once dissolved, approximately 2.00 g ol' platinum oxide was added to Ihe reaction mixture and the reaction mixture vigorously stirred for 16 h at 60[degrees]C.
Furthermore, "the platinum oxide
layer that quickly forms on an electrode's surface dramatically slows down the chemical reactions there," says Adzic.
The method is based on a hydrogen gas-saturated mobile phase with fluorescent detection after postcolumn reduction by a platinum oxide
catalyst column (3).
The Pt-TNTs were found to generate platinum oxide
Pt[O.sub.x.sup.[delta]+] (PtO and Pt[O.sub.2], with [[delta].sup.+] in both +2 and +4 states while x = 1 and 2, resp.) [38, 39] after calcination at 550[degrees]C.
Despite having a significant amount of oxygen in the composition of the electrocatalysts, crystalline formation of the platinum or gallium oxides was not identified; however this hypothesis cannot be dismissed because the oxides might be present in amorphous form, since the gallium oxide has well defined structure upon heating above 500[degrees]C  and platinum oxides
are well formed at 900[degrees]C .