pogrom


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pogrom

(pō`grəm, pōgrŏm`), Russian term, originally meaning "riot," that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander IIAlexander II,
1818–81, czar of Russia (1855–81), son and successor of Nicholas I. He ascended the throne during the Crimean War (1853–56) and immediately set about negotiating a peace (see Paris, Congress of).
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 in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least without hindrance from, the government, there were many pogroms throughout Russia. Soldiers and police often looked on without interfering. These pogroms encouraged the first emigration of Russian Jews to the United States. After 1882 there were few pogroms until 1903, when there was an extremely violent three-day pogrom at Chisinau resulting in the death of 45 Jews. Although it has not been conclusively proved that the czarist government organized pogroms, the government's anti-Semitic policies certainly encouraged them. After the abortive revolution of 1905, pogroms increased in number and violence. With the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, pogroms ceased in the Soviet Union; they were revived in Germany and Poland after Adolf Hitler attained power.

Bibliography

See E. H. Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (1992).

pogrom

an organized persecution or extermination of an ethnic group, esp of Jews
References in periodicals archive ?
The origins of the twentieth-century pogrom narrative are usually attributed to Chaim Nachman Bialik's gut-wrenching Hebrew-language poem, "In the City of Slaughter," written in the immediate aftermath of the 1903 Kishinev pogrom.
The pogrom in Jedwabne was described by professor Jan Tomasz Gross in his book "Neighbors."
The pogroms came as a direct result of years of vicious, racist anti-Armenian propaganda by Azerbaijani authorities, dehumanizing the Armenian residents of Azerbaijan and laying the groundwork for mass violence.
Mr Schuster said that while the Nazis' SA and SS organisations were responsible for the pogrom, the population's reaction "gave the Nazis valuable information: barely anyone protested".
The aKristallnachta pogrom is usually seen as the symbolic beginning of the Holocaust.
Under the guise of defending the good name of "The Polish Nation" the bill opens the way to criminalising anyone who seeks to reveal dark chapters of Polish history, such as antisemitic pogroms before, during and after the war.
Both 1984 and 2002 were indeed state led pogroms for which justice is still awaited.
Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-1882, by John Doyle Klier.
Inspired by the author's grandmother, who survived a Russian pogrom and escaped to Shanghai and then to the United States, Rachel's Hope is a must-read for fans of historical fiction.
Nevertheless, all of the accounts reveal the degree to which their authors were traumatized by their experiences, as they realized that the pogrom was not a spontaneous outburst but rather part of a cynical Nazi plan to force the expulsion of German Jews, and how they decided, without exception, to leave their homeland forever.
In reality, the country is India, the extremists are Hindus, the 2002 Gujarat pogroms targeted Muslims, and the leader in question is Narendra Modi.
The article 'Saffron Success' was yet another stereotypical account of the Gujarat pogrom and presented Narendra Modi in a biased light on the basis of pre-conceived notions.