Overcoming the unique challenges of polar navigation through the development of grid navigation procedures marked a significant advancement in making the Polar Concept a reality.
Williams, 46th Reconnaissance Squadron (VLR) Photographic, "A Summary of Polar Navigation," File: USSTAF-Historical Section-Histories, Box 291, Carl A.
With the opening of the Northern Sea Route and with new regulations for polar navigation
coming into force, products will need to meet Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) requirements, which specifies that at least one radar be equipped with ice detection capability.
The plane was equipped with polar navigation
hardware and the crew patiently waited in Rothera for a weather break to fly over nine hours at 10,000 feet at around 269 kilometres per hour to their destination.
electronic charts, the Global Positioning System and bathymetric, Doppler and polar navigation
, as well as celestial and inertial navigation and navigational astronomy.
The polar-class icebreaker Kapitan Khlebnikov is renowned in the field of adventure travel and polar navigation