of unknown aetiology in a heifer.
Histologically, a nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis
was present from the hypothalamus to the lumbar spinal cord.
Foot clenching and weakness have been described in birds with cardiovascular disease (endocarditis, atherosclerosis), (24,25) poisoning (organophosphate, heavy metal), (26) orthopedic abnormalities (appendicular fracture, spinal trauma, degenerative joint disease), (27) metabolic abnormalities (hypocalcemia, hypovitaminosis B2, vitamin E and selenium deficiency), and neurologic disease (infectious or parasitic polioencephalomyelitis
, poliomalacia, and ischiatic nerve compression), (28) but some cases remain idiopathic.
More controversial is the common requirement of remote paralytic polio, since non-paralytic polioencephalomyelitis
would not count.
If Y is considered to be a vowel, then the longest are: INTERNATIONAL ICE HOCKEY FEDERATION (16) Bloomsbury and others ENCEPHALOMYELORADICULONEURITIS (15) Stedman HONORIFICABILITUDINITY (11) OED, DEOXYRIBONUCLEOPROTEIN (11) OED, PALAEOCLIMATOLOGICALLY (11) OED palaeoclimatology 1966, POLIOENCEPHALOMYELITIS
(11) Web 2, PSEUDOMONOCOTYLEDONOUS (11) OED pseudo- 1832