Local adverse effects (dysuria, pollakiuria
, cystitis, hematuria) and systemic adverse effects (fever, fatigue) were in favor of BCG.
Other AEs like diarrhoea, dysuria, fungal infection, muscle spasm, pollakiuria
reported to FAERS had no positive signal till 2015Q2.
Common complaints include difficulty in voiding, pollakiuria
, urinary incontinence, low urine flow, and recurrent urinary tract infections (4).
Dysuria developed in 26 (89.6%) patients, and pollakiuria
in 26 (89.6%) patients in whom BCG was administered.
Clinical signs: Clinical signs related to PBS were recorded accordingly that mainly includeddysuria, gross hematuria, pollakiuria
, vocalization, licking, and urethral obstruction.
The clinical presentation is very diverse, usually associating dysuria, microscopic hematuria, and pollakiuria
. (3,4) Active urinary tract infection is present in nearly half of the cases at time of diagnosis.
When Candida species were isolated in urine culture in the presence of at least one of the signs and symptoms related with urinary tract infection (temperature >38[degrees]C, dysuria, pollakiuria
, and suprapubic tenderness), a diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) was made.
The unique mechanism of glucose-lowering of SGLT-2 inhibitors via increased urinary glucose excretion is associated with specific AEs, including genital mycotic infection and urinary tract infection, as well as several AEs related to osmotic diuresis (pollakiuria
, polyuria) and volume depletion (postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension) (TABLE 2).
Diagnosis of UTI was defined acording to; positive culture of ESBL-producing isolates ([greater than or equal to] 105 cfu/mL) and presence of one of the followings ; fever (>38), UTI symptoms (dysuria, pollakiuria
, urinary urgency, urinary incontinence, abdominal pain, suprapubic tenderness, etc) -2].
A ureteral stent can cause dysuria and pollakiuria
. Removal of the stent at a later time results in increased complication rates (9).
Two months later, the patient consulted for a perineal pain that increases throughout the day in concordance with alternating episodes of pollakiuria
, urinary incontinence, and urinary retention.
Strangury but not pollakiuria
was observed 3 days after surgery.