Polycythemia

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polycythemia

(pŏl'ēsīthē`mēə), condition characterized by an increase in the production of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, in the blood. Primary polycythemia, also called erythremia, or polycythemia vera, is a chronic, progressive disease, most common in middle-aged men. It is characterized by overgrowth of the bone marrow, abnormally increased red blood cell production, and an enlarged spleen. Symptoms, include headache, inability to concentrate, and pain in the fingers and toes. There is a danger of blood clotting or hemorrhage (see thrombosisthrombosis
, obstruction of an artery or vein by a blood clot (thrombus). Arterial thrombosis is generally more serious because the supply of oxygen and nutrition to an area of the body is halted.
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). Primary polycythemia is treated by radiation, periodic removal of some blood (phlebotomy), or chemotherapy with antimetabolite drugs, e.g., CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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. In secondary polycythemia, or erythrocytosis, the proliferation of red blood cells results from the body's attempt to compensate for other conditions, such as prolonged lack of oxygen at high altitudes or chronic lung or heart insufficiency. Certain tumors are also associated with increased red blood cell production. In secondary polycythemia the treatment is directed toward the underlying cause.

Polycythemia

 

an increase in the total quantity of blood in the human body. A distinction is made between polycythemia vera, in which the increase in erythrocytes, up to 8–10 million in 1cu mm of blood, is greater than the increase in the total volume of blood plasma, and hypervolemia, which is characterized chiefly by an increase in the volume of plasma. The latter may be of cardiac origin or may be due to water retention in the vascular system after copious drinking. The normal ratio of the volume of blood cells to that of plasma is 45:55.


Polycythemia

 

an increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood. Spurious, or relative, polycythemia results from a reduction in the volume of blood plasma and is caused by loss of fluid, as from heavy perspiration or from diarrhea. Secondary polycythemia is characterized by an absolute increase in the number of erythrocytes, as with oxygen deficiency in the mountains, heart disease, or pulmonary emphysema. Secondary polycythemia accompanied by an increase in the volume of blood plasma is called polycythemia vera, or erythremia.

polycythemia

[‚päl·i‚sī′thē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
A condition characterized by an increased number of erythrocytes in the circulation.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, cases of severe polycythaemia have not been reported in the literature to our knowledge.
There is statistical significant difference between primary and secondary polycythaemia in TLC, platelets, MCV, MCH and basophil count.
Our study revealed that the DCC was not associated with any increased risk for significant polycythaemia and this finding was consistent with study done by Kinmond et al.
Polycythaemia was defined as venous haematocrit (PCV) of more than 65% or a venous haemoglobin concentration more than 22 g/dL.
Adult health physicians could be faced with these patients in daily practice with different clinical scenarios such as arrhythmias, bacterial endocarditis, cyanosis, polycythaemia, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic complications.
(13) In one review, anaemia was present in 70% and polycythaemia in 6%.
They are at high risk for perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, infections, polycythaemia, anaemia, etc.
The long-term untoward effects of hypoxaemia are secondary polycythaemia, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure.
The other exclusion criteria for the study were patients with any associated diseases like sickle cell disease, polycythaemia, leukaemia, pelvic thrombophlebitis, retroperitoneal haemorrhage, neurologic diseases such as spinal cord injury, which can lead to priapism.
Physiological factors that predispose to thrombosis are-changes in blood flow like stasis or hyperviscosity of blood as in dehydration, Congestive Heart Failure, Polycythaemia and changes in coagulability of blood.
(23) Polycythaemia. (24) and Pulmonary Hypertension.
The very high mean ESR seen in premalignant states may be due to the increase in acute phase proteins mentioned above in addition to anaemia, polycythaemia and advancing age of the patients.