Morphogenesis of polydactyly
might operate via cellular developmental constraints (Alberch, 1985; Walterhouse et al., 2003), genetic controls (Radhakrishna et al., 1997; Zhao, 2002; Galjaard, 2003), environmental controls (Brown, 1996), inbreeding (Kunz and Chase, 1983), or teratogenic events (Hootnick et al., 1983, 1991; Rivera et al., 1999).
(1) A challenge to that theory was provided by the results of a case series by McClay et al, who studied three generations of a family in which 5 of 8 members available for examination had polydactyly
and some degree of cleft epiglottis,s As a result, the true etiology behind these anomalies is still unknown.
Limb and dermatoglyphics feature showed sandal gap in 42.1% cases, Kennedy crease in 53.2% cases brachydactyly in 37.3% cases, clinodactyly in 36.5% cases, polydactyly
in 4% cases, simian crease in 33.3% cases, Sydney line in 24.6% cases and increased ATD angle in 40.5% cases.
Keywords * Syndrome * Dwarfism * Polydactyly
* Ectodermal dysplasia * Cardiac defect
The observed variability in the type and severity of the anomalies depends on the time of rupture of the amniotic membranes; if this occurs during the first 45 days of pregnancy, the defects are more severe, mainly in the craniofacial structures, along with other anomalies of the central nervous system, visceral defects, and limb anomalies (such as syndactyly or polydactyly
The limb abnormalities after VPA exposure may include pre- and postaxial polydactyly
, overlapping digits, talipes (clubfoot), clinodactyly, arachnodactyly, hip dislocation, limb deficiencies, preaxial and postaxial polydactyly
, reduction malformations of the arms and hands and radial ray defects19,20 .
To the Editor: Ellis–van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia with the prevalence of 1/60,000 approximately.[sup] It is characterized by short limbs, short ribs, postaxial polydactyly
, dysplastic nails/teeth, and congenital heart defects (CHD) which were observed in about 60% of affected individuals.
with short, broad hands has been described.
Padmanabham and Hameed in 1990, observed that by giving the different doses of cadmium limb malformations such as ectrodactyly, postaxial polydactyly
, adactyly, phocomelia, meromelia and malrotation of the limbs were detected in significant number of fetuses.
The prenatal ultrasound showed multiple congenital anomalies including encephalocele, bilateral enlarged kidneys, abnormal lower distal limbs, club foot, and polydactyly
. There was a clinical suspicion of Meckel-Gruber syndrome.
This is followed by a review of Polydactyly
. The section is rounded out with examinations of total elbow arthroplasty and upper extremity golf injuries.
In this study, 21.6% of cases with oral clefts were associated with other anomalies including hydrocephalus, polydactyly
, microcephalus, hypospadias and microphthalmia.