Polymerase


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to Polymerase: RNA polymerase, Taq polymerase

polymerase

[pə′lim·ə‚rās]
(biochemistry)
An enzyme that links nucleotides together to form polynucleotide chains.

Polymerase

 

(nucleotidyltransferase), an enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the synthesis of nucleic acids from nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of DNA or RNA, which serves as the template. The synthesis of a new chain of DNA (replication) or RNA (transcription) on a DNA template is accomplished with strict adherence to the principle of complementarity.

The action of polymerases involves the transfer of a molecule of ribonucleoside or deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate to the end of a chain of RNA or DNA that is being synthesized, which results in extension of the chain and liberation of a molecule of pyrophosphate. The synthesis of RNA catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase takes place on one of the chains of the double—helical DNA template. The newly synthesized polyribonucleotide branches from the DNA template as a single thread. The synthesis of DNA takes place simultaneously on both chains of a previously uncoiled DNA template.

The discovery and isolation of DNA polymerase in 1956 by the American scientist A. Romberg enabled him to be the first to carry out the synthesis of active DNA in a test tube.

REFERENCES

Kornberg, A. “Puti fermentativnogo sinteza nukleotidov i polinukleotidov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy nasledstvennosti. Moscovi 1960. (Translated from English.)
Davidson, J. Biokhimiia nukleinovykh kislot. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

L. S. KHAILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
As an enzyme for PCR, we used the following types of DNA-dependent DNA polymerases: Taq DNA polymerase, Tersus DNA polymerase, Deep Vent DNA polymerase and Phusion DNA polymerase.
The reaction components for extreme and rapid-cycle PCR were identical except for the amount of polymerase and primers.
F2koPB1/WSN) as well as a plasmid that expressed the pseudo-virus RNA (NP/WSN combined with luciferase) by cellular RNA polymerase I (referred to as PoI-NP-Luc) [16] and a control reporter plasmid (referred to as pRL-TK).
In this approach, template DNA is mixed with two template-specific primers which are of opposite orientation and flank the region of interest (just as in PCR), along with a DNA helicase, some SSBs, and often (depending on the specific helicase and polymerase), a few other "accessory proteins" which assist the helicase and DNA polymerase in optimum function.
It is well known that, the DNA sequencing essentially required Taq DNA polymerase and enzymes with N- terminal deletion [6].
Specific enzymatic amplification of DNA in vitro: the polymerase chain reaction.
The work of Kornberg's team culminated in 2001 with two publications, one showing inactive RNA polymerase and the other capturing the machinery during the transcription process.
This activity was previously demonstrated in polymerase beta, which is active in a repair pathway called base excision repair (BER).
Diagnostic sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in biopsy specimens from cervical lesions.
The 155 page, August 2011 publication studies the global polymerase chain reaction technology market for the period 2010-2015, providing in-depth analysis of the market, the participants, their products/techniques and the opportunities it presents.
Polymerase activity is most often characterized with radiometric assays.
It is the microbe's endogenous DNA polymerase that is the key component of the ETGA technology.

Full browser ?