Polymerase


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Related to Polymerase: RNA polymerase, Taq polymerase

polymerase

[pə′lim·ə‚rās]
(biochemistry)
An enzyme that links nucleotides together to form polynucleotide chains.

Polymerase

 

(nucleotidyltransferase), an enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the synthesis of nucleic acids from nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of DNA or RNA, which serves as the template. The synthesis of a new chain of DNA (replication) or RNA (transcription) on a DNA template is accomplished with strict adherence to the principle of complementarity.

The action of polymerases involves the transfer of a molecule of ribonucleoside or deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate to the end of a chain of RNA or DNA that is being synthesized, which results in extension of the chain and liberation of a molecule of pyrophosphate. The synthesis of RNA catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase takes place on one of the chains of the double—helical DNA template. The newly synthesized polyribonucleotide branches from the DNA template as a single thread. The synthesis of DNA takes place simultaneously on both chains of a previously uncoiled DNA template.

The discovery and isolation of DNA polymerase in 1956 by the American scientist A. Romberg enabled him to be the first to carry out the synthesis of active DNA in a test tube.

REFERENCES

Kornberg, A. “Puti fermentativnogo sinteza nukleotidov i polinukleotidov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy nasledstvennosti. Moscovi 1960. (Translated from English.)
Davidson, J. Biokhimiia nukleinovykh kislot. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

L. S. KHAILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The work of Kornberg's team culminated in 2001 with two publications, one showing inactive RNA polymerase and the other capturing the machinery during the transcription process.
Prevalence of high risk genital papillomaviruses in the Belgian female population determined by fast multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Characterization of a novel DNA polymerase activity assay enabling sensitive, quantitative and universal detection of viable microbes.
Failure to detect paramyxovirus sequences in Paget's disease of bone using the polymerase chain reaction.
The RNA-directed DNA polymerase assay was a modification of methods described by Goff et al.
an aqueous buffer, containing Mg2+ ions and a pH buffering agent plus (sometimes) other particular cofactors which aid the polymerase to be employed;
We have been unable to study how DNA polymerase eta can replicate through UV damage because we did not have a crystal structure of the enzyme to study.
Briefly, RNA was transcribed in vitro by T7 RNA polymerase (RiboMax RNA production system, Promega, Madison, WI, USA) from plasmids containing the respective PCR target region, and plasmid DNA was digested with DNase.
In this system, the polymerase is derived from the T7 bacteriophage (essentially a virus that lives inside of bacteria).
We found that the amount of mispriming and other nonspecific products mainly depends on the origin of Taq polymerase and other conditions, such as the number of PCR cycles and the use of enhancer components.
Inhibitex was awarded the grants for FV-100, which is in Phase II clinical development for the treatment of shingles, and INX-189, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor in Phase 1b clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infections.
Assuming suitable pH, dNTP availability, and cations, a minimal structure for a DNA polymerase to be able to work with could then be represented in text as Figure 1.

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