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Polytheism(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Polytheism—whose name is derived from the Greek words for "many" and "gods"— refers to the belief in, and worship of, many deities. Early humankind's concept of deity included gods of wind, water, fire, air, storm, sky, hunting, and fertility. Polytheism was found in Sumeria, Greece, Rome, Egypt, and elsewhere, and was passed on to the present day via many primitive tribes, such as those found in Africa, South and North America, and Polynesia.
Witchcraft is a polytheistic religion (although it might be more accurate to term it duotheistic, since its followers worship a god and a goddess rather than a multitude of deities). Although Christianity professes to be monotheistic, its inclusion of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and the many saints—who are revered and prayed to— would seem to indicate that this is actually a polytheistic religion. James, E. O.: The Ancient Gods. Capricorn Books, 1964. Leach, Maria (ed.): Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend. Harper &
the worship of many gods.
Polytheism arose in early class society. It developed from polydemonism—the worship of various spirits of the tribal-clan religions—as a reflection in ideology of the social stratification and complication of religious fantasy. In polytheism the supernatural world is represented as a hierarchy of gods possessing varying degrees of power, each with his own individual name, his own (often anthropomorphic) appearance, and his own definite sphere of control in nature and society. At the head of the pantheon, corresponding to earthly power, is a supreme god; but he is not the only one, in contrast to monotheism. Polytheism does not preclude the recognition of the gods of other peoples. The main role in the ritual of polytheism is played by priests, who are associated with particular temples.
Adherents to polytheistic religions include the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, as well as the peoples of modern India, Japan, and tropical Africa. Many of the concepts and rituals of polytheism continue to exist in all the “monotheistic” religions—belief in a “holy trinity” (the god-father, the god-son, and the holy spirit), worship of prophets, and the cult of the mother of god and the saints.