And (Eqs.) be the corresponding population mean square error of the study and the auxiliary variable, respectively and let (Eqs.) be the coefficient of variation of the study as well as auxiliary variable respectively, and (Eqs.) be the population correlation coefficient
between x and y.
Outlining specific learning activities such as drawing a scatter plot; computing the correlation coefficient; testing the hypothesis about the population correlation coefficient
; computing the equation of the regression line, allows just-in-time support for students to set specific goals and select appropriate task strategies to accomplish these goals.
The sample correlation coefficient, r, is a biased estimator of the population correlation coefficient
, [rho], for normal populations.
Where l22 represent population correlation coefficients
between y and x, Where l40 = b2(y) and l04 = b2(x) were the kurtosis for the population of the study variable and the auxiliary variable respectively.