Common cephalic disorders include anencephaly, colpocephaly, holoprosencephaly, ethmocephaly, hydranencephaly, iniencephaly, lissencephaly, megalencephal, microcephaly, porencephaly
, and schizencephaly.
Pathologic findings in cranial magnetic resonance imaging and cranial tomography (*) Neuroimaging findings n % Encephalomalacia 91 36.1 Mass lesion 13 5.2 Non-specific white matter lesion 130 51.6 Atrophy 42 16.7 Temporal lobe lesion 16 6.3 - Mesial temporal sclerosis 10 3.9 - Atypical lesion 6 2.4 Vascular pathology 3 1.2 - Chronic subdural hematoma 1 0.4 - Arteriovenous malformation 1 0.4 - Venous cavernoma 1 0.4 Hydrocephalus 9 3.6 - With ventriculoperitoneal shunt 3 1.2 - Without ventriculoperitoneal shunt 6 2.4 Congenital pathology 5 2.0 - Schizencephaly 3 1.2 - Porencephaly
1 0.4 - Cortical ectopia 1 0.4 Calcification 3 1.2 Demyelinating plaques 1 0.4 Corpus callosum lesion 1 0.4 (*) There were several pathologic findings in 55 patients Table 4.
(3) Type 2 cysts may also be multiloculated, and communication between locules and ventricles may be difficult to visualize and exclude.2,3 The imaging triad AVID (Asymmetric Ventriculomegaly, Interhemispheric cyst, and Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum) has been proposed to aid with distinction from aqueductal stenosis and porencephaly
. (6) Associated subependymal and subcortical heterotopia, polymicrogyria, deficient falx, fused thalami and hydrocephalus may also be associated.
* Selected congenital brain anomalies: intracranial calcifications; cerebral atrophy; abnormal cortical formation (e.g., polymicrogyria, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, gray matter heterotopia); corpus callosum abnormalities; cerebellar abnormalities; porencephaly
; hydranencephaly; ventriculomegaly/hydrocephaly.
is congenital or acquired CSF filled cavities due to destructive process such as intraparenchymal haemorrhage, infection or surgery.
MRI imaging can identify nonspecific abnormalities like periventricular leucomalacia, atrophy, it can demonstrate static remote lesions like porencephaly
, it can point out focal lesions responsible for seizures like focal cortical dysplasias and mesial temporal sclerosis being a potential candidate for epilepsy surgery.
In this neonatal ultrasound screening study that is the only available trial in which cranial abnormalities were assessed across the whole range of gestational ages (24-43 weeks gestation), the overall incidence of WMD was 0.02%, 0.02%, and 2.6% for periventricular leukomalacia, porencephaly
(cystic periventricular leukomalacia), and enlarged lateral ventricles, respectively ; however, only cerebral hemorrhage but not WMD was evaluated.
and psychosis: a case report and review of the literature.
is an extremely rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of solitary or multiple degenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cavities within the brain matter .
The fetal injuries that result from infections with these viruses are most often described as hydranencephaly, porencephaly
, cerebellar hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia, microcephaly and arthrogryposis of neurogenic nature, among others (OBERST, 1993).