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Beer

, in the Bible
Beer (bēˈər), in the Bible. 1 Unidentified place, to which Gideon's son Jotham fled. 2 Unidentified place, E of the Dead Sea between the Arnon and the Jordan, where Israel camped and dug a well. The little song quoted is one of the oldest poetic pieces in the Bible.

beer

, alcoholic beverage

beer, alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermenting cereals, especially malted barley, usually with the addition of hops as a flavoring agent and stabilizer. One of the oldest of alcoholic beverages (there is archaeological evidence dating to c.3000 B.C.), beer was well known in ancient Egypt, where it may have been made from bread. At first brewed chiefly in the household and monastery, it became in late medieval times a commercial product and is now made by large-scale manufacture in almost every industrialized country, especially Great Britain, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the United States.

Although British, European, and American beers can differ markedly in flavor and content, brewing processes are similar. A mash, prepared from crushed malt (usually barley), water, and, often, cereal adjuncts such as rice and corn, is heated and rotated in the mash tun to dissolve the solids and permit the malt enzymes to convert the starch into sugar. The solution, called wort, is drained into a copper vessel, where it is boiled with the hops (which provide beer with its bitter flavor), then run off for cooling and settling. After cooling, it is transferred to fermenting vessels where yeast is added, converting the sugar into alcohol. Modern beers, typically lighter than ancient, contain about 3% to 6% alcohol.

Beers fall into two broad categories. Ales are made with yeast that ferments more quickly at warmer temperatures and tends to rise to the surface. Lagers use yeast that ferments more slowly at cooler temperatures and tends to settle, and they are aged at cold temperatures for weeks or months, hence the name [Ger., Lager=storage place]. Most major American beers are lagers; many are Bohemian Pilsners, a golden-hued lager. Bock beer, said to take its name from Einbeck, Prussia, where it was first made, is a heavier, usually darker lager. Pale ale is generally a light to dark amber, strongly hopped beer. Porter is a strong, dark ale brewed with the addition of roasted malt to give flavor and color. Stout, an ale which is darker and maltier than porter, has a more pronounced hop aroma and may attain an alcoholic content of 6% to 7%. Light, or low-calorie, beer is lower in alcohol content. Ice beer is a higher-alcohol beer produced by chilling below 32℉ (0℃) and filtering out the ice crystals that form.

In the 1980s, consumer dissatisfaction with the taste and choice offered by major breweries led to the growth of more traditional “craft” breweries and microbreweries—firms that produce fewer than 15,000 barrels annually—especially in the United States. By 2010 there were in the United States several dozen regional craft breweries, more than 600 microbreweries, and more than 1,000 brewpubs (a microbrewery that sells mainly through its own restaurant or bar).

Bibliography

See G. Oliver, ed., The Oxford Companion to Beer (2011).

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porter

1
US and Canadian a railway employee who waits on passengers, esp in a sleeper

porter

2
RC Church a person ordained to what was formerly the lowest in rank of the minor orders

porter

3
Brit a dark sweet ale brewed from black malt

Porter

1. Cole. 1893--1964, US composer and lyricist of musical comedies. His most popular songs include Night and Day and Let's do It
2. George, Baron Porter of Luddenham. 1920--2002, British chemist, who shared a Nobel prize for chemistry in 1967 for his work on flash photolysis
3. Katherine Anne. 1890--1980, US short-story writer and novelist. Her best-known collections of stories are Flowering Judas (1930) and Pale Horse, Pale Rider (1939)
4. Peter. born 1929, Australian poet, living in Britain
5. Rodney Robert. 1917--85, British biochemist: shared the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine 1972 for determining the structure of an antibody
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in classic literature ?
"Madam," answered the porter, "these gentlemen entreat you to explain to them why you should first whip the dogs and then cry over them, and also how it happens that the fainting lady is covered with scars.
But they made up their minds to die bravely, all except the porter, who loudly inquired of Zobeida why he was to suffer for other people's faults, and declared that these misfortunes would never have happened if it had not been for the Calenders, who always brought ill-luck.
In spite of her anger, there was something so comic in the groans of the porter that Zobeida could not refrain from laughing.
Those that will tell us their histories and their reasons for coming here shall be allowed to leave unhurt; those who refuse--" And she paused, but in a moment the porter, who understood that he had only to relate his story to set himself free from this terrible danger, immediately broke in,
"Oh, madam," cried the porter, "let me stay yet a little while.
By using the Icegen software, each porter will be issued a specially designed Wi-Fi badge that transmits a unique ID number correlated with his ID in the Icegen software.
'Thank you @francislibiran8 for this stunning custom couture piece you sent all the way from the Philippines,' Porter said via Instagram on June 6.
Just hours after being discharged, Mr Porter started panicking, saying he could not breathe, the court was told, reports theManchester Evening News.
In addition to his wife, Albert is survived by his daughters: Beverly (Terry) Heiman, Ramsey; Barbara (Bryan) Rhodes, Oconee; Joyce (Mario) Carmona, Mattoon; grandchildren: Whitney Craig, Shelby Craig, Laci Craig, Michelle Heiman, Alia Porter, Autumn Rhodes; great grandchildren: Joelynn Craig & Jance Cantrell; and siblings: Jack Porter, Herrick; Irma (Charles) Shuff, Tower Hill; Annie (Bill) Smith, Ramsey; Richard Porter, Marion.
Porter joined the company as associate general counsel in 2011 and was promoted in 2016 to general counsel of Chubb Bermuda, where he also provided legal oversight for its affiliates in Dublin and London.
Porter, 31, is known as an aggressive pressure brawler with a high workrate.
This makes Porter Wright the first Columbus-based, full-service law firm to enter the Chicago market.