Portland cement clinker was used in the experimental study.
This study analyzed the production of type CEM II A-B/W cement with the replacement of Portland cement clinker with Class C fly ash at ratios of 5%, 20%, and 35%.
Montreal-based McInnis Cement began portland cement clinker
production and finishing at its eastern Quebec mill last month, triggering what will likely be a two-year ramp up to annual capacity exceeding 2 million metric tons (mt)--much delivered to concrete producers in Great Lakes, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic markets.
The use of such PLC has the potential to bring about a 10% reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of portland cement clinker
. The acceptable performance of concrete containing combinations of PLC and SCM will permit further reductions in the C[O.sub.2] footprint of the concrete.
Today instead of Portland cement clinker
, other constituents are commonly used.
Klein published the paper "Properties of the Calcium Silicates and Calcium Aluminate Occurring in Normal Portland Cement" (3) which expanded on the research of Rankin and Wright at the Geophysical Laboratory on the constitution of portland cement clinker
. This work demonstrated that 3CaO*[SiO.sub.2], or alite, was one of the primary constituents, as postulated by Henri LeChatelier over 30 years previously.
Metals continue to be important materials for construction, for example, studies of iron ore tailings (IOT) as raw material for manufacturing of Portland cement clinker
, where the results showed that the raw meal containing IOT had higher reactivity and burnability than the raw meal containing clay, and the use of IOT did not affect the formation of characteristic mineralogical phases of Portland cement clinker
, or studies concerned about physicochemical properties of concrete containing iron ore tailings in order to solve the shortage of natural sand and make full use of industrial waste.
They arrive as the American cement market leans toward binder solutions with lower portland cement clinker
factor, which in turn equates to carbon dioxide emissions reduction.
Market forces will drive a continuing decrease in mixes' Portland cement clinker
content and an increase in crushed or recycled aggregate use, he noted, and the latter will require new admixtures to curtail yield stress and control viscosity.
Conventionally, the [C.sub.3]A content in Portland cement clinker
was modified from about 6 to 13% at the manufacturing phase according to the required performance [11, 12].
Periclase in Portland cement clinkers
may cause unsound issues to concrete, and its content is often limited in many specifications of cements [19-21].