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The sense of position and movement of the limbs and the sense of muscular tension. The awareness of the orientation of the body in space and the direction, extent, and rate of movement of the limbs depend in part upon information derived from sensory receptors in the joints, tendons, and muscles. Information from these receptors, called proprioceptors, is normally integrated with that arising from vestibular receptors (which signal gravitational acceleration and changes in velocity of movements of the head), as well as from visual, auditory, and tactile receptors. Sensory information from certain proprioceptors, particularly those in muscles and tendons, need not reach consciousness, but can be used by the motor system as feedback to guide postural adjustments and control of well-practiced or semiautomatic movements such as those involved in walking.

Receptors for proprioception are the endings of peripheral nerve fibers within the capsule or ligaments of the joints or within muscle. These endings are associated with specialized end organs such as Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini's cylinders, and Golgi organs (the latter resembling histologic Golgi structures in the skin), and muscle spindles. See Cutaneous sensation, Sensation, Somesthesis


The reception of internal stimuli.
Sensory awareness of one's location with regard to the external environment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Changes in joint position sense after surgically treated chronic lateral ankle instability.
Changes in joint position sense after conservatively treated chronic lateral ankle instability.
Effect of proprioception training on knee joint position sense in female team handball players.
Joint position sense and kinesthesia scores in the dominant and non-dominant limb [Mean [+ or -] SD] Dominant Non-dominant PasJPS20-In (degree) 2.
Influence of Muscle Fatigue on Position Sense and Motion Sense Position Sense
The influence of muscle fatigue on position sense in degrees in dancers and controls is presented in Table 2.
In non-dancers muscle fatigue by maximal isometric muscle contractions affected motion sense but not position sense.
Cryotherapy and joint position sense in healthy participants: A systematic review.
The effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder joint position sense.
The effect of tape and neoprene ankle supports on ankle joint position sense.
One limitation of our experiment was that foot position sense testing was performed in quasi-static conditions, which calls for caution in applying results to actual locomotion.

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