traumatic injuries can demonstrate focal edema (hyperintense T2 signal) involving any part of the plexus distal to the DRG, anatomic discontinuity with or without clumping/retraction, or a periplexus hematoma.
Local injections of this toxin in the parotid and submandibular glands inhibit the cholinergic parasympathetic and postganglionic
sympathetic activity, thereby reducing saliva production .
Raeder syndrome (paratrigeminal oculosympathetic syndrome) is a rare clinical entity characterized by ipsilateral trigeminal sensory deficits, ptosis, and miosis, with an absence of anhidrosis secondary to interruption of the postganglionic
The efferent postganglionic
nerve fibers go cross the head, the neck, the upper limbs and the heart.
Catecholamine-producing tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that affect the chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla and postganglionic
fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.
After separation from the superior cervical ganglion, postganglionic
and sympathetic fibers are separated into two groups together with carotis communis bifurcation.
With regard to the abovementioned observations, direct suppression of postganglionic
neurons, presynaptic suppression of primary afferents, suppression of spinal neurons that include the micturition reflex, and inhibition of interneurons that involve spinal segmental reflexes can indirectly suppress protective reflexes via internal sphincter sympathetic or external urethral sphincter interneurons closing bladder afferent entries.
A hand-held remote controller placed against the cheek activates the device and controls the intensity of stimulation, which is thought to work by blocking signals to the postganglionic
sympathetic fibers separated from this ganglion contribute into sympathetic innervation of smooth muscles and glands in the head (Getty, 1975; George et al.
Reserpine mediates the depletion of neurotransmitters from postganglionic
nerve endings, which consequently lower arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance ultimately leading to decreased heart rates and cardiac output.
The extensive nerve network in the submucosa contains visceral sensory fibers mainly of sympathetic origin, parasympathetic (terminal) ganglia, and preganglionic and postganglionic
parasympathetic nerve fibers.
Nerve fibers consistent with postganglionic
sympathetic fibers were also found close to blood vessels, which again suggests a vascular component leading to ischemic pain.