hemorrhage

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hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
North America dominates the postpartum hemorrhage treatment devices market in terms of revenue.
The World Health Organization and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended the use of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in settings where access to oxytocin is not possible (7,8), however, the WHO recommends further research to determine the safety of a self-administration program of misoprostol (9).
Keywords: misoprostol, postpartum hemorrhage, unsafe abortion, maternal mortality, Africa
In one study of 226 women with postpartum hemorrhage treated with a Bakri balloon the success rate was 89% and 66% following vaginal delivery and CD, respectively.
Utility of multidetector CT in severe postpartum hemorrhage. Radiographics 2012; 32:1463-1481.
Massive postpartum hemorrhage is an emergency lifethreatening situation and an obstetrician's nightmare11.
The device concept was developed in 2010 at Cal Poly in an effort to design a global solution for postpartum hemorrhage.
Characteristics of the patients who underwent peripartum hysterectomy because of postpartum hemorrhage (n=310) Mean Age 32.2[+ or -]4.57 Gravida 3 Parity 2 Previous cesarean sections No 83 (27%) Yes 227 (73%) History of repeat C/S 85 (27%) Gestational week 36 Mode of delivery Cesarean delivery 183 (59%) Vaginal delivery 127 (41%) Hospital stay (days) 10[+ or -]5 Preoperative Hct, % 35 (12-47) Preoperative platelet count 168742[+ or -]66800 Hct: Hematocrit, C/S: Cesarean sections Table 2.
"Among women with vaginal delivery who received prophylactic oxytocin, the use of tranexamic acid did not result in a rate of postpartum hemorrhage of at least 500 ml that was significantly lower than the rate with placebo," the authors write.
The development of a drug to prevent postpartum hemorrhage that continues to remain effective in hot and humid conditions is very good news for the millions of women who give birth in parts of the world without access to reliable refrigeration, Metin Gulmezoglu of WHO's Department of Reproductive Health and Research, said.
The study helps resolve questions in an area of obstetric practice that affects both mother and infant: Prompt administration of oxytocin after delivery helps reduce the risk of maternal postpartum hemorrhage, while the bolus of placental blood delivered by delayed umbilical cord clamping provides benefit to the infant by increasing hemoglobin and hematocrit and reducing the incidence of iron deficiency during the newborn period.

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