Comparison of proposed methods with the methods in literature used for urea determination Method Signal mechanism Linear range, mM Fluorescence CdSe/ZnS-Urease 0-10 Fluorescence CdSe/ZnSe-MSA-Urease 0.01-100 Amperometry PVC ammonium electrode 15-80 Potentiometry
Urease polyurethane-acrylate 0.2-0.6 Phosphorescence Mn doped ZnS QDs-Urease 0.014-60 Phosphorescence MPA capped CdTe-Urease 0.016-0.16 Method LOD, mM References Fluorescence - 17 Fluorescence 0.01 24 Amperometry 15 5 Potentiometry
0.2 9 Phosphorescence 0.014 6 Phosphorescence 0.003 This work LOD: Logarithm of odds, ZNS: Zinc selenide, CdSe: Cadmium selenium, MSA: Mannitol salt agar, PVC: Polyvinyl chloride, QDs: Quantum dots, MPA: 3-mercaptopropionic acid Table 2.
Regarding the usage of analytical techniques in the determination studies of mercury, as presented in Figure 1, 52.00% used spectrometric techniques, such as AAS, AFS, ICPOES, ICP-MS, spectrometry, and spectrofluorometry, 30.00% used electrochemical techniques, such as a voltammetry and potentiometry
, and 15.00% used miscellaneous techniques.
Ionized calcium is measured by direct potentiometry
using saline with calcium chloride as the calibrator.
Shamsipur, Flow Injection Potentiometry
by a New Coated Graphite Ionselective Electrode for the Determination of Pb, Talanta., 60, 775 (2003).
Determination of clonidine by potentiometry
using PVC membrane electrode.
Levels of Cd (II), Mn (II), Pb (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) in common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) from Sicily (Italy) by derivative stripping potentiometry
The final section discusses nanoelectrochemical techniques, including the use of liquid-liquid interfaces, microfabrication, more on electrodeposition, scanning electron microscopy of nanostructures and cells, tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and potentiometry
. ([umlaut] Ringgold, Inc., Portland, OR)
The complete blood counts [CBC] were analyzed using the automated COULTER (Beckman Coulter], The CBC included haemoglobin [Hb] haematocrit [HCV], total white blood cell count [TWBC], platelet count, mean cell volume [MCV], mean cell haemoglobin [MCH], mean cell haemoglobin concentration [MCHC] and red cell distribution width [RDW], Serum sodium and potassium were estimated by ABL800 radiometer, by ion selective method, using indirect potentiometry
To establish the structure of oligomer molecules we applied a gas-liquid and liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopy of a nuclear magnetic resonance, conductive-and potentiometry
. The molecule weight of the synthesized oligomer was determined by the crioscopic method.
Analytical methods include titration, liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and potentiometry
(fluoride ion-selective electrode).
Several methods for the determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids have been reported including HPLC [2-5], spectrophotometry [5-9], extractive spectrophotometry and conductometry , spectrofluorometry , potentiometry
, and capillary electrophoresis [13,14].