practical reasoning


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practical reasoning

  1. thought directed to, and having outcomes in, social activity. This usage originates in PHILOSOPHY where it is contrasted with ‘theoretical reason’, considered as describing the world and its contents. Practical reason, by contrast, either emanates directly in action, or brings an immediate pressure to bear on it. It thus subsumes: considerations of the 'self realizing and maximizing its goods, ‘prudence’, and considerations that restrict or encourage action or restraint from action in relation to others, i.e. ‘morality’. The most dramatic claims to a special status for practical reason derive from Aristotle's proposal ofa practical syllogism, separate from theoretical syllogisms, in which an action itself (not a description or specification of an action) is held to follow logically from precedent premises, often summarized as a ‘desire’ and a ‘belief. The effect is to render action itself’logical’, and this is held by some to be the source of the ‘meanings’ of action. Such logical connection is then held (e.g. Von Wright, 1971) to mark the fundamental difference between the explanation of human activity and the explanation of natural events (see also MEANINGFUL UNDERSTANDING AND EXPLANATION).
  2. mundane or everyday thought in social situations. This ethnomethodological usage takes practical reasoning to be the central feature of routine social organization, and hence the subject matter of serious empirical sociology (see ETHNOMETHODOLOGY).
References in periodicals archive ?
This in turn leads to philosophical questions about goods themselves and therefore into the theory of practical reasoning. In contemporary philosophy this leads into the disagreements associated with the doctrine known now as "expressivism," a successor to the emotivism that played such a key role in the early part of After Virtue, as expounded especially in the work of Alan Gibbard and Simon Blackburn, supplemented by resources only to be found in Nietzsche and Harry Frankfort, the last of whom emerges as one of the most indicative moral thinkers of recent times.
Are there contingent features of agents that are nonetheless best understood as genuine facets of their faculty of practical reasoning? And, if there are such features, might they play a role in determining which normative judgments are correct for an agent in something like the way that practical reason "as such" is supposed to?
(4) When those norms do not fully determine what the law's subjects should do, but instead leave open a domain in which those subjects should follow the dictates of first-order practical reasoning, then those norms are to that extent standards.
Discussion: The clinical action of complementary medicine practitioners derives from practical reasoning, which is a logically cohesive and rationally defensible position.
According to the "expressive" role Brandom attributes to logic, "normative vocabulary (including expressions of preference) makes explicit the endorsement (attributed or acknowledged) of material proprieties of practical reasoning" (2000, p.
In a book with the title "Dependent Rational Animals" and with the aim of stressing the human animal's vulnerability and dependence on others, it is perhaps understandable that MacIntyre recognizes the need to focus on the topic of "independent practical reasoning" (IPR) at some length.
These strivings correspond to the practical reasoning toward the various ends." (77) For Rhonheimer, "human practical reason only exists in [pre-rational, bodily] nature, is always bound up with nature, and is conditioned by nature.
Keith Graham, Practical Reasoning in a Social World: How We Act Together.
To assist students in their analysis of argumentation, Patton provided several models of argumentation and practical reasoning, including those of Stephen Toulmin and Chaim Perelman, which consider not only the reasons and evidence supporting a claim but also the warrants, backing, qualifiers, and reservations.
The book's argument is that "the complicated procedural and conceptual developments in legal history produced and satisfied a demand for a sophisticated language of intentional action, and that this language became instrumental in parallel developments in the theater's increasing ability to produce representations of human beings acting out routines of practical reasoning" (4).
The origins of the BDI model lie in the theory of human practical reasoning developed by the philosopher Michael Bratman (1987) in the mid-1980s.
This aspect of Aquinas transcends practical reasoning. Finnis and I agree wholeheartedly on the issue that "in a philosophical education, reflections about God come last" (296).

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