practical reasoning


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practical reasoning

  1. thought directed to, and having outcomes in, social activity. This usage originates in PHILOSOPHY where it is contrasted with ‘theoretical reason’, considered as describing the world and its contents. Practical reason, by contrast, either emanates directly in action, or brings an immediate pressure to bear on it. It thus subsumes: considerations of the 'self realizing and maximizing its goods, ‘prudence’, and considerations that restrict or encourage action or restraint from action in relation to others, i.e. ‘morality’. The most dramatic claims to a special status for practical reason derive from Aristotle's proposal ofa practical syllogism, separate from theoretical syllogisms, in which an action itself (not a description or specification of an action) is held to follow logically from precedent premises, often summarized as a ‘desire’ and a ‘belief. The effect is to render action itself’logical’, and this is held by some to be the source of the ‘meanings’ of action. Such logical connection is then held (e.g. Von Wright, 1971) to mark the fundamental difference between the explanation of human activity and the explanation of natural events (see also MEANINGFUL UNDERSTANDING AND EXPLANATION).
  2. mundane or everyday thought in social situations. This ethnomethodological usage takes practical reasoning to be the central feature of routine social organization, and hence the subject matter of serious empirical sociology (see ETHNOMETHODOLOGY).
References in periodicals archive ?
4) When those norms do not fully determine what the law's subjects should do, but instead leave open a domain in which those subjects should follow the dictates of first-order practical reasoning, then those norms are to that extent standards.
Discussion: The clinical action of complementary medicine practitioners derives from practical reasoning, which is a logically cohesive and rationally defensible position.
Practical reasoning as well, then, must have a substantive object or aim: there must be something at which practical reasoning aims in virtue of which it aims at figuring out what to do.
But, making explicit an inferential commitment means different things for different patterns of practical reasoning.
He addresses the topic of practical reasoning in chapter 7, which is devoted to discussing "flourishing" and "goods.
These strivings correspond to the practical reasoning toward the various ends.
Keith Graham, Practical Reasoning in a Social World: How We Act Together.
To assist students in their analysis of argumentation, Patton provided several models of argumentation and practical reasoning, including those of Stephen Toulmin and Chaim Perelman, which consider not only the reasons and evidence supporting a claim but also the warrants, backing, qualifiers, and reservations.
This aspect of Aquinas transcends practical reasoning.
In other words, practical reasoning terminates with the attestation of agency and the recognition that freedom and responsibility cannot be explained as theoretical concepts but only as practical ones.
This is a book that philosophers working in practical reasoning will have to read.
In any case of practical reasoning in which an agent such as Strategic Bomber engages, the total scenario is considered (where the total scenario includes all factors seriously considered by the agent).

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