praetor


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Related to praetor: consul

praetor

(prēt`ər), in ancient Rome, originally a consulconsul,
title of the two chief magistrates of ancient Rome. The institution is supposed to have arisen with the expulsion of the kings, traditionally in 510 B.C., and it was well established by the early 4th cent. B.C.
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, and later a judicial magistrate (from c.366 B.C.). In 242 B.C. two praetors were appointed, the urban praetor (praetor urbanus), deciding cases to which citizens were parties, and the peregrine praetor (praetor peregrinus) deciding cases between foreigners. The urban praetor exercised the functions of the consuls in their absence and of the peregrine praetor when he was holding a military command. Two additional praetors were appointed (227) to administer Sicily and Sardinia, and two more (197) to administer Spain. A principal duty of praetors was the production of the public games. Under the empire the functions of the praetor were gradually taken over by other magistrates.

Praetor

 

a state position in ancient Rome. Initially, in the early republican period, “praetor” was the title of the highest magistrates (consuls and dictators). In 367 (or 366) B.C., the position of praetor was instituted as a junior colleague of the consul. The praetor managed civil court cases on the basis of the praetorian edict, which he himself issued, and, in the absence of consuls, he had supreme power. In 242 B.C. two praetors were elected: the city praetor (praetor urbanus), who managed court trials among Roman citizens, and a praetor for foreigners (praetor peregrinus). Under Sulla, the number of praetors was increased to eight. After performance of their duties, praetors were sent to the provinces as propraetors or proconsuls. In the time of the empire the highest city officials were also called praetors.

praetor

, pretor
(in ancient Rome) any of several senior magistrates ranking just below the consuls
References in periodicals archive ?
1,2,2,28 POMPONIUS liber singulari Enchiridii: Post aliquot deinde annos non sufficiente eo praetore, quod multa turba etiam peregrinorum in civitatem veniret, creatus est et alius praetor, qui peregrinus appellatus est ab eo, quod plerumque inter peregrinos ius dicebat (Despues, transcurridos algunos anos no bastando aquel Pretor, porque tambien gran numero de extranjeros acudia a la ciudad, se creo otro Pretor, que se llamo Peregrino, en razon a que ordinariamente proferia sentencias entre extranjeros).
Originally, there was 1 Imperial praetor, then 2, and after Sulla (137-78 BC), there were 8.
1993 206 Thomasomys notatus Thomas, Raton montaraz marcado 1917 207 Thomasomys onkiro Luna y Raton montaraz ashaninka Pacheco, 2002 208 Thomasomys oreas Anthony, 1926 Raton montaraz dorado pequeno 209 Thomasomys praetor (Thomas, Raton montaraz de Cajamarca 1900) 210 Thomasomys ppyrrhonotus Raton montaraz de dorso rojizo Thomas, 1886 211 Thomasomys rosalinda Thomas y Raton montaraz rosalinda St.
289) Forced heirship seems to have been originally an idea of the praetor who would grant bonorum possessio in spite of the provisions of the ius civile and in spite of a testator's failure to specifically institute certain relatives as heirs.
97) For Goldman, the praetor peregrinus (who for some of Goldman's contemporaries provided an early model of the judge applying lois de police (98)) is "this representative of Roman authority" who "doubtless borrowed from the customs of international commerce and from the less formalistic elements of the Roman law itself.
Leaving aside the details, for instance the Roman division of labour between the praetor and the appointed judges, or the medieval division of labour between the "decision-makers" and the "judge" proclaiming the sentence, we have--to plagiarize Max Weber--an ideal-type course of events from the family or the clan to the state, from vengeance and self-help to distanced and neutral proceedings, from speech to writing, from a religiously or magically defined moral law to the differentiation of a system "law", from a ruling uno actu in situ to multi-level proceedings with the option to appellate, in other words: to the formation of normative hierarchies.
Many a defeated general won the highest government posts, those of consul and praetor.
Conversely, if the prescribing physician makes any statements suggesting he or she would have treated the plaintiff differently had the undisclosed risk been known, summary judgment for the defendant may be prevented even if the defendant has strong contrary testimony and evidence that the doctor would have treated the patient in the same manner, as happened in Praetor v Davis.
Praetor (PREE-tur): magistrate in charge of government when the consul traveled from Rome.
The piece de resistance of this issue is ForeWord's Ninth Annual Look at the Big Ten: Outstanding Books from University Presses by ForeWord's Praetor of Prose, Peter Skinner.
Terrified by his dignity, I thought the praetor had come.
Interestingly, Rattus praetor has not been recorded from Tongan Lapita sites (White et al.