praetor


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praetor

(prēt`ər), in ancient Rome, originally a consulconsul,
title of the two chief magistrates of ancient Rome. The institution is supposed to have arisen with the expulsion of the kings, traditionally in 510 B.C., and it was well established by the early 4th cent. B.C.
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, and later a judicial magistrate (from c.366 B.C.). In 242 B.C. two praetors were appointed, the urban praetor (praetor urbanus), deciding cases to which citizens were parties, and the peregrine praetor (praetor peregrinus) deciding cases between foreigners. The urban praetor exercised the functions of the consuls in their absence and of the peregrine praetor when he was holding a military command. Two additional praetors were appointed (227) to administer Sicily and Sardinia, and two more (197) to administer Spain. A principal duty of praetors was the production of the public games. Under the empire the functions of the praetor were gradually taken over by other magistrates.

Praetor

 

a state position in ancient Rome. Initially, in the early republican period, “praetor” was the title of the highest magistrates (consuls and dictators). In 367 (or 366) B.C., the position of praetor was instituted as a junior colleague of the consul. The praetor managed civil court cases on the basis of the praetorian edict, which he himself issued, and, in the absence of consuls, he had supreme power. In 242 B.C. two praetors were elected: the city praetor (praetor urbanus), who managed court trials among Roman citizens, and a praetor for foreigners (praetor peregrinus). Under Sulla, the number of praetors was increased to eight. After performance of their duties, praetors were sent to the provinces as propraetors or proconsuls. In the time of the empire the highest city officials were also called praetors.

praetor

, pretor
(in ancient Rome) any of several senior magistrates ranking just below the consuls
References in periodicals archive ?
suggesting that the best reading "would make Gregory urban praetor,
A praetor, the most superior of the magistrates, served the early Republic as consul.
This woman, unique to the Lucan Gospel, exhibited the same tenacity that Plutarch described in his "Life of Sertorius." This great Roman soldier served as praetor in Spain in the first century B.C.
After the Enterprise is diverted to the Romulan planet of Romulus, supposedly because they want to negotiate a truce, the Federation soon finds out that the Romulans are planning an attack on Earth, while Captain Jean-Luc Picard faces off against the new Romulan praetor, a clone of himself.
before the urban praetor or provincial governor when the child had
the decemvirate, consular tribunes, two consuls, and a praetor).
(10) Later, the praetor (a special Roman magistrate whose job was, in part, to mitigate the harshness of the ius civile) would intervene, at least in extreme cases, such as when acts were compelled by duress.
But he is most explicit in his fascination with the idea of Roman "reception of an international custom of commercial law." (97) For Goldman, the praetor peregrinus (who for some of Goldman's contemporaries provided an early model of the judge applying lois de police (98)) is "this representative of Roman authority" who "doubtless borrowed from the customs of international commerce and from the less formalistic elements of the Roman law itself." (99) In fact, despite Goldman's assurance, there is little historical evidence--but a lot of speculation--as to what ius gentium really was.
Leaving aside the details, for instance the Roman division of labour between the praetor and the appointed judges, or the medieval division of labour between the "decision-makers" and the "judge" proclaiming the sentence, we have--to plagiarize Max Weber--an ideal-type course of events from the family or the clan to the state, from vengeance and self-help to distanced and neutral proceedings, from speech to writing, from a religiously or magically defined moral law to the differentiation of a system "law", from a ruling uno actu in situ to multi-level proceedings with the option to appellate, in other words: to the formation of normative hierarchies.